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Digestive System Flashcards

Digestive System Flashcards
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Secretin

A hormone produced by the wall of the small intestine upon contact with acidic chyme

Causes bile production by the liver and bicarbonate release by the pancreas

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Pancreatic Lipase
An enzyme found in the pancreas that helps digest fats
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Pancreatic Trypsin
An enzyme found in the pancreas that helps digest proteins
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Pancreatic Amylase
An enzyme found in the pancreas that helps digest starches
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Bicarbonate
An alkaline chemical compound secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum of the small intestine which neutralizes acidic chyme from the stomach
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pH of the Stomach

Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid, making a highly acidic environment

Stomach's epithelial cells secrete alkaline mucus to coat and protect the stomach lining, preventing peptic ulcers

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Pepsin

A digestive enzyme in the stomach produced by chief cells

Important for the breakdown of proteins

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Larynx

The passage that air travels through to get into the lungs

Contains the vocal chords

Rises during swallowing and is covered by the epiglottis, preventing liquids and solids from entering the lungs

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Label the Divisions of the Pharynx

A: nasopharynx

B: oropharynx

C: laryngopharynx

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Mechanical Digestion

The process by which food is broken down by physical means

First occurs in the mouth through mastication, in which food particles are chewed and grinded

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Chemical Digestion

The process by which food is broken down by chemicals like enzymes

First occurs in the mouth with the enzyme salivary amylase

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23 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

You're at your favorite restaurant, and you've just eaten a huge portion of your favorite meal. You might be ready for a nap, but your body is working hard to turn the food you just ate into molecules that your body can use to function, grow, and repair itself. The specific organ system responsible for the digestion of food is the digestive system, and it is the topic of this flashcard set. Review the structure and function of the organs of the digestive system and how each contributes to the breakdown of the food we eat. Also review what makes up the food we eat, and how their components are used by our bodies.

Front
Back
Chemical Digestion

The process by which food is broken down by chemicals like enzymes

First occurs in the mouth with the enzyme salivary amylase

Mechanical Digestion

The process by which food is broken down by physical means

First occurs in the mouth through mastication, in which food particles are chewed and grinded

Label the Divisions of the Pharynx

A: nasopharynx

B: oropharynx

C: laryngopharynx

Larynx

The passage that air travels through to get into the lungs

Contains the vocal chords

Rises during swallowing and is covered by the epiglottis, preventing liquids and solids from entering the lungs

Pepsin

A digestive enzyme in the stomach produced by chief cells

Important for the breakdown of proteins

pH of the Stomach

Parietal cells secrete hydrochloric acid, making a highly acidic environment

Stomach's epithelial cells secrete alkaline mucus to coat and protect the stomach lining, preventing peptic ulcers

Bicarbonate
An alkaline chemical compound secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum of the small intestine which neutralizes acidic chyme from the stomach
Pancreatic Amylase
An enzyme found in the pancreas that helps digest starches
Pancreatic Trypsin
An enzyme found in the pancreas that helps digest proteins
Pancreatic Lipase
An enzyme found in the pancreas that helps digest fats
Secretin

A hormone produced by the wall of the small intestine upon contact with acidic chyme

Causes bile production by the liver and bicarbonate release by the pancreas

Cholecystokinin

A hormone produced by the wall of the small intestine upon contact with acidic chyme

Causes bile release by the gallbladder

Small Intestine's Reaction to Chyme

Intestinal wall stretches

Environment becomes acidic from acid present in chyme

Leads to triggering of enterogastric reflux, which causes the stomach to slow down its digestion and emptying

Peristalsis
The process by which food is moved through the small intestine through muscular contractions occurring in a wavelike series
Pendular Movement

Caused by the alternating of contraction and relaxation of the longitudinal muscles in the walls of the small intestine

Allows for chyme to mix

Villi
Small finger-like projections found on the mucosal lining the small intestine that act to increase nutrient absorption into the bloodstream by increasing the surface area of the intestinal wall
Colon

The portion of the large intestine found between the cecum and rectum

Four parts: ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

Important for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, water, and salts

Goblet Cells

Specialized epithelial cells found in the mucosa of the large intestine

Secrete mucus that coats the feces (large intestine waste) to make it easier to pass

Carbohydrates

Organic compounds such as sugars and starches that are the body's major source of energy

Building block: monosaccharides, which join together to form disaccharides and polysaccharides

Salivary Amylase

An enzyme produced in the mouth that begins the process of carbohydrate digestion

Part of the process of chemical digestion of food

Proteins

Organic compounds that are important for the building and functioning of cells

Building block: amino acids, joined together by peptide bonds

Triglycerides

A type of lipid, which are fat-like molecules that do not dissolve in water

The form of fat most commonly stored by the body

Chyme
A partially-digested, semifluid mass of food formed in the stomach following churning and mixing with acidic gastric juices

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