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Endocrine System Overview Flashcards

Endocrine System Overview Flashcards
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Insulin

The hormone responsible for lowing blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream

Released by the pancreas when blood sugar is high, such as after eating

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Calcium Balance in the Body

Parathyroid hormone: secreted by parathyroid glands; leads to increase of calcium in the blood

Calcitonin hormone: secreted by thyroid gland; leads to decrease of calcium from blood

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Thyroid
Endocrine gland responsible for controlling metabolism, body temperature, growth and development, heart rate, and calcium levels in the blood
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Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Secreted by anterior pituitary gland

Leads to T3 and T4 release by thyroid for control of processes such as metabolism, growth and development, heart rate, and body temperature

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Endocrine System Response to Dehydration

Detected by hypothalamus

Message sent to pituitary gland through hypothalamic-releasing hormone

Pituitary releases anti-diuretic hormone, causing kidneys to reabsorb more water into bloodstream

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Hypothalamus

Responsible for monitoring the body for disruptions in homeostasis

Responds by sending messages to pituitary gland through the use of hypothalamic-releasing and hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones

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Pituitary Gland

'Master gland' made up of anterior and posterior sections

Releases hormones into the bloodstream based on instructions from the hypothalamus

Can stimulate other glands, leading to hormone release

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Endocrine Glands

Groups of cells within the endocrine system that produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream

Different types, each responsible for making specific types of hormones

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Hormone
A chemical messenger released by endocrine glands that performs a specific job for the body, including regulation of metabolism, sexual function, reproduction, and growth and development
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Flashcard Content Overview

People like to blame things on hormones. Bad moods. Aggression. Acne. Hormones sound pretty terrible, don't they? Actually, hormones are incredibly important. They are responsible for the changes necessary for your body to grow and develop and maintain homeostasis. But what is a hormone? And where do they come from? This flashcard set will introduce you to the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system, and how hormones are used within this system to produce changes throughout the body.

Front
Back
Hormone
A chemical messenger released by endocrine glands that performs a specific job for the body, including regulation of metabolism, sexual function, reproduction, and growth and development
Endocrine Glands

Groups of cells within the endocrine system that produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream

Different types, each responsible for making specific types of hormones

Pituitary Gland

'Master gland' made up of anterior and posterior sections

Releases hormones into the bloodstream based on instructions from the hypothalamus

Can stimulate other glands, leading to hormone release

Hypothalamus

Responsible for monitoring the body for disruptions in homeostasis

Responds by sending messages to pituitary gland through the use of hypothalamic-releasing and hypothalamic-inhibiting hormones

Endocrine System Response to Dehydration

Detected by hypothalamus

Message sent to pituitary gland through hypothalamic-releasing hormone

Pituitary releases anti-diuretic hormone, causing kidneys to reabsorb more water into bloodstream

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Secreted by anterior pituitary gland

Leads to T3 and T4 release by thyroid for control of processes such as metabolism, growth and development, heart rate, and body temperature

Thyroid
Endocrine gland responsible for controlling metabolism, body temperature, growth and development, heart rate, and calcium levels in the blood
Calcium Balance in the Body

Parathyroid hormone: secreted by parathyroid glands; leads to increase of calcium in the blood

Calcitonin hormone: secreted by thyroid gland; leads to decrease of calcium from blood

Insulin

The hormone responsible for lowing blood sugar levels by allowing cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream

Released by the pancreas when blood sugar is high, such as after eating

Glucagon

The hormone responsible for raising blood sugar levels by signaling to the liver to break down glycogen

Released by the pancreas when blood sugar is low, like after a long period without eating

Hormones Secreted by the Adrenal Glands

Corticosteroids, produced by the adrenal cortex: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones

Catecholamines, produced by the adrenal medulla

Catecholamines

Hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to short-term stress

Raise heart rate, blood pressure, blood glucose, and cardiac output

Aldosterone

A type of mineralocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex following a drop in blood pressure

Causes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys, which brings in water and raises blood volume and pressure

Identify the Glands of the Endocrine System
A: pineal gland; B: thalamus; C: pituitary gland; D: thymus; E: thyroid; F: parathyroid; G: adrenal glands; H: pancreas; I: ovaries; J: testes
Puberty
The stage of development during which the gonads (ovaries and testes) become functional
Corpus Luteum
Produces progesterone to help the uterus accept a fertilized egg, maintain a pregnancy, and prevent the uterine lining from sloughing off prior to placenta development
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that causes egg production in the ovaries and sperm production in the testes
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG)

A hormone produced by an implanted fertilized egg that aids in the maintenance of the corpus luteum

Detected by pregnancy tests shortly following conception

Human Placental Lactogen (hPL)
A hormone secreted by the placenta that helps the body prepares for lactation through the growth of the mammary glands

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