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Human Reproductive System Flashcards

Human Reproductive System Flashcards
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Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
The androgen that contributes to male features, such as facial hair and male-pattern baldness, and causes the enlargement of the external genitalia of males
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Ductus Deferens
The structure that accepts mature, immobile sperm from the epididymis and moves the sperm through peristaltic contractions to the ampulla
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Spermatogenesis

The process by which sperm, the male gametes, are made from germ cells (spermatogonia)

Occurs in the seminiferous tubules

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Rete Testis
The structure that connects the two lobules of the testes together and moves sperm to the epididymis
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Sertoli Cells

Also known as nurse cells

The cells found in the seminiferous tubules that provide nutrients to and protect developing sperm

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Septa
The connective tissue that separates the testis into lobules
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Tunica Albuginea
The connective tissue that covers the testes, which are found inside scrotal cavities
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Prostatic Fluid
An acidic fluid made up of antibiotic proteins produced by the prostate gland that makes up between 20-30% of semen
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Epididymis

A coiled tube found on top of each testicle in males

Purposes: accept and store immature sperm from the testes and promote sperm maturation

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Flashcard Content Overview

It takes approximately 40 weeks for a fertilized egg to develop into an infant that is ready to live outside of its mother. However, processes leading to the production of the egg and sperm that came together had been going on for much longer than that. This flashcard set will help you review the cells, tissues, and organs that make up the male and female reproductive system and how they develop. Additionally, they will look at how this system is regulated by the hormones of the endocrine system.

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Epididymis

A coiled tube found on top of each testicle in males

Purposes: accept and store immature sperm from the testes and promote sperm maturation

Prostatic Fluid
An acidic fluid made up of antibiotic proteins produced by the prostate gland that makes up between 20-30% of semen
Tunica Albuginea
The connective tissue that covers the testes, which are found inside scrotal cavities
Septa
The connective tissue that separates the testis into lobules
Sertoli Cells

Also known as nurse cells

The cells found in the seminiferous tubules that provide nutrients to and protect developing sperm

Rete Testis
The structure that connects the two lobules of the testes together and moves sperm to the epididymis
Spermatogenesis

The process by which sperm, the male gametes, are made from germ cells (spermatogonia)

Occurs in the seminiferous tubules

Ductus Deferens
The structure that accepts mature, immobile sperm from the epididymis and moves the sperm through peristaltic contractions to the ampulla
Dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
The androgen that contributes to male features, such as facial hair and male-pattern baldness, and causes the enlargement of the external genitalia of males
Testosterone

The androgen that stimulates nurse cells, which are involved in sperm production

Approximately 5% is converted into dihydrotestosterone

Peristalsis

The process by which smooth muscle contractions move objects in a wavelike pattern

Along with cilia, it is what moves an oocyte to the uterus through the uterine tubes

Fertilization

The process by which a sperm joins with a released oocyte (does not occur for most oocytes)

Usually takes place in the uterine tube between the ampulla and the isthmus

Cervix
The structure found just below the main body of the uterus that connects the uterus to the vaginal canal
Uterus

The structure in the body that acts to support a growing fetus

Made up of three layers: endometrium (inner), myometrium (middle), and perimetrium (outer)

Oogenesis

The process by which ova, the female gametes, are made from germ cells (oogonia)

Occurs in the ovaries

Menses
The process by which tissue in the functional zone of the uterine wall is shed, triggered by a released oocyte that does not become fertilized; also known as menstruation
Functions of Estrogen
Regulates female sexual behavior and HPG axis signaling, promotes egg development, and stimulates breast development
Phases of the Ovarian Cycle

Follicular Phase: days 1-14, ends with ovulation

Luteal Phase: days 15-28

Progesterone

Secreted by the corpus luteum following ovulation

Inhibits GnRH secretion to prevent an additional oocyte from being released during a single uterine cycle

Contributes to uterine tissue rebuilding

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