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Muscular System Anatomy Flashcards

Muscular System Anatomy Flashcards
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Cranial Nerve VII

Also known as the facial nerve

Responsible for innervating the approximately 20 different muscles contributing to facial expressions

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Proximal
An anatomical direction referring to a site on an appendage that is closer to the appendage's attachment site to the body relative to some other site
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Distal
An anatomical direction referring to a site on an appendage that is further away from the appendage's attachment site to the body relative to some other site
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Insertion

The muscle attachment site that moves during a muscle contraction

Usually distal to the body compared to the origin

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Origin

The muscle attachment site that does not move during a muscle contraction

Usually proximal to the body compared to the insertion

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Circumduction
The circular movement of an appendage, such as the arms, legs, or head
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Second-Class Levers in the Body

Load is between the applied force and fulcrum

Moves large loads slowly with small force

Example in body: plantar flexion; fulcrum = ball of foot, load = body weight, force applied by calf muscle

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First-Class Levers in the Body

Applied force on opposite side of the fulcrum from the load

Example in body: head extension; fulcrum = skull-vertebrae joint, load = head weight, force applied by neck and back muscles

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Third Class Levers in the Body

Applied force acts between the fulcrum

Can move small loads far quickly

Example in body: forearm flexion; fulcrum = elbow, load = forearm + load, force applied by bicep muscle

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18 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

If you've ever 'pumped iron' at the gym, you've worked on strengthening the topic of this flashcard set: your muscles! You have almost 700 different skeletal muscles within your body, and each of them is important for the stabilization and movement of your body. These flashcards will help you review the anatomy and physiology of the muscles of the muscular system.

Front
Back
Third Class Levers in the Body

Applied force acts between the fulcrum

Can move small loads far quickly

Example in body: forearm flexion; fulcrum = elbow, load = forearm + load, force applied by bicep muscle

First-Class Levers in the Body

Applied force on opposite side of the fulcrum from the load

Example in body: head extension; fulcrum = skull-vertebrae joint, load = head weight, force applied by neck and back muscles

Second-Class Levers in the Body

Load is between the applied force and fulcrum

Moves large loads slowly with small force

Example in body: plantar flexion; fulcrum = ball of foot, load = body weight, force applied by calf muscle

Circumduction
The circular movement of an appendage, such as the arms, legs, or head
Origin

The muscle attachment site that does not move during a muscle contraction

Usually proximal to the body compared to the insertion

Insertion

The muscle attachment site that moves during a muscle contraction

Usually distal to the body compared to the origin

Distal
An anatomical direction referring to a site on an appendage that is further away from the appendage's attachment site to the body relative to some other site
Proximal
An anatomical direction referring to a site on an appendage that is closer to the appendage's attachment site to the body relative to some other site
Cranial Nerve VII

Also known as the facial nerve

Responsible for innervating the approximately 20 different muscles contributing to facial expressions

Multifidus Muscles

Origin: sacrum and vertebrae

Insertion: superior vertebrae

Thin muscles that extend the vertebral column when they contract together and rotate the vertebral column when they contract individually

Axial Muscles

Muscles found in the middle of the body, also known as the body's axis

Three categories, named for their location: abdominal, cervical, and thoracic

Dorsal
An anatomical direction referring to the back side of the body
Forearm Pronation

An action involving the rotating of the palm inward toward the body, from the anterior to posterior position

Causes the radius to be pulled over the ulna

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
A painful condition caused when the median nerve is compressed by inflamed tendons in the forearm
Gluteal Group

One group of muscles that help move the thigh

Includes the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus

Hamstrings
A large group of muscles found in the thigh responsible for flexing the leg at the knee
Quads
A large group of muscles found in the thigh responsible for extending the leg at the knee
Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot

Large muscles found in the leg that help control the foot and toes

Allows the foot to execute fine movements without being too bulky

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