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Physiology of Muscles Flashcards

Physiology of Muscles Flashcards
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Actin
The contractile protein found in thin filaments
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Myofibrils

Contractile organelles that makes up muscle fibers

Made up of approximately 10,000 sarcomeres

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Sarcomere

The functional unit of striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle

Make up myofibrils

Made up of overlapping contractile proteins: myosin and actin

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Fascicle
A group of tightly packed muscle fibers, surrounded by perimysium
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Perimysium

A layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle

Contains many blood vessels to provide nutrients to the muscle

Contains many nerves that help regulate contraction of the muscle

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Shivering Thermogenesis
The process by which skeletal muscles rapidly contract, generating heat for the body and aiding in temperature regulation
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Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Involves the shortening of a muscle

Leads to a body part being pulled or moved

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Cardiac Muscle

A type of striated, involuntary muscle found in the heart

Fibers are connected by intercalated discs for communication

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Smooth Muscle
A type of unstriated, spindle-shaped, involuntary muscle found in visceral (hollow) organs
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Voluntary Muscle

A type of muscle tissue that requires motor neuron stimulation from a conscious thought for contraction

Example: skeletal muscle

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Autonomic Motor Neurons

Motor neurons that connect the involuntary nervous system with cardiac and smooth muscle

Cause muscle contraction without neural stimulation, such as heart rate increase when nervous

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23 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

There are different types of muscle tissue within your body. Some muscles you control consciously, like when you move your mouse to click through these lessons. Some muscles you don't control consciously, like when you're watching a scary movie and your heart beats faster and faster. These flashcards will help you review the structure and function of the different types of muscle tissue you have in your body. They will also review how they contract and how this is voluntarily or involuntarily controlled by your nervous system

Front
Back
Autonomic Motor Neurons

Motor neurons that connect the involuntary nervous system with cardiac and smooth muscle

Cause muscle contraction without neural stimulation, such as heart rate increase when nervous

Voluntary Muscle

A type of muscle tissue that requires motor neuron stimulation from a conscious thought for contraction

Example: skeletal muscle

Smooth Muscle
A type of unstriated, spindle-shaped, involuntary muscle found in visceral (hollow) organs
Cardiac Muscle

A type of striated, involuntary muscle found in the heart

Fibers are connected by intercalated discs for communication

Skeletal Muscle Contraction

Involves the shortening of a muscle

Leads to a body part being pulled or moved

Shivering Thermogenesis
The process by which skeletal muscles rapidly contract, generating heat for the body and aiding in temperature regulation
Perimysium

A layer of connective tissue that surrounds a fascicle

Contains many blood vessels to provide nutrients to the muscle

Contains many nerves that help regulate contraction of the muscle

Fascicle
A group of tightly packed muscle fibers, surrounded by perimysium
Sarcomere

The functional unit of striated (skeletal and cardiac) muscle

Make up myofibrils

Made up of overlapping contractile proteins: myosin and actin

Myofibrils

Contractile organelles that makes up muscle fibers

Made up of approximately 10,000 sarcomeres

Actin
The contractile protein found in thin filaments
Myosin
The contractile protein found in thick filaments
Rigor Mortis
A phenomenon caused by a lack of ATP in a corpse, causing the calcium-to-troponin cross-bridge to remain intact and continuous muscle contraction until the muscle protein degrades
Presynaptic Cell
The neuron at the junction between a neuron and a muscle cell that sends a message through the secretion of neurotransmitters
Postsynaptic Cell
The muscle cell at the junction between a neuron and a muscle cell that receives a message through the binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on the cell membrane
Resting Length

The stretched length of skeletal muscles when they are not contracting

Allows for maximum muscle contraction

Isotonic Contraction
A type of muscle contraction in which the muscle changes length
Concentric Contraction
A type of isotonic contraction in which a muscle shortens
Eccentric Contraction
A type of isotonic contraction in which a muscle lengthens
Isometric Contraction
A type of muscle contraction in which the muscle does not change length, preventing the body part which it is attached to from moving
Fast Fibers

A type of fast-contracting muscle fiber that uses anaerobic metabolism as their source of ATP

Very strong and quick but fatigue quickly

Contain few mitochondria

Slow Fibers

A type of slow-contracting muscle fiber that uses aerobic metabolism as their source of ATP

Can maintain a contraction for a long time but have low force

Contain many mitochondria

Intermediate Fibers

A type of muscle fiber that is halfway between fast and slow fibers

Moderate force, moderate endurance, and moderately resistant to fatigue

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