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SAT World History: The Medieval Warm Period Flashcards

SAT World History: The Medieval Warm Period Flashcards
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the Battle of Hastings
The battle in which William the Conqueror defeated King Harold who was weak from fighting off the King of Norway.
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The King of _____ was one of the people to try to replace Edward the Confessor as King.
Norway
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Harold Godwinson
The most powerful and popular noble man to try to replace Edward the Confessor.
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Edward the Confessor
A king of England, who produced no heirs and died in 1066.
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manorialism
The Dark Ages' political structure, with Lords owning manors, while peasants work on a manor in exchange of protection, food, and shelter.
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the Dark Ages
A term that refers to Europe after the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.
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the ecumenical patriarch
A title given to the Bishop of Constantinople claim his patriarchy above others, and putting him at odds with the Western Pope.
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the Filioque clause
This clause addressed the authority given to the trinity in the wording of the Nicene creed, and was a point of disagreement between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism.
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The Western Catholic Church used the _____ language in services.
Latin
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Eastern Orthodox churches used the _____ language in services.
Greek
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With the capital of Rome in Constantinople, Rome _____ by 395 CE, creating the divide that would later show up as the divide between Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
split into Eastern and Western Empires
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Papal authority
The Pope's power
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The Great Schism of 1054 CE, or the 'East-West Schism.'
The split between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism.
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Crop rotation
Rotating land each growing season between cereals, plants that replace the nitrogen in the soil (oats, beans, and barley) and a fallow season in which nothing is grown to create better soil quality.
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the horse collar
A collar that places the weight of an object being pulled on the horses shoulder, when used with the tandem harness and horseshoe this made for a faster beast of burden than oxen.
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harrows
A tool used to level out the field after plowing, burying the seeds.
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the heavy plow
A heavy wedge of iron pulled behind oxen or other animals to cut deeper furrows in the wet soil than the earlier Roman version.
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During the Medieval warm period, vikings no longer had to pillage for supplies because, _____.
they were able to grow their own food in the warmer climate.
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the Medieval Warm Period
In about 950 to 1250 CE, global temperatures increased by 1 degree C (2 degrees F), resulting in more crops in Europe and less crops in the Mediterranean.
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The cause of the agricultural revolution from 1050 CE to 1300 CE in Europe.
Warmer climate due to climate change, political stability without Viking raiders, and the addition of new techniques and technology in agriculture contributed to food surplus.
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58 cards in set

Flashcard Content Overview

In Medieval Europe the earths temperatures warmed up allowing for agricultural revolution, and new technologies that allowed people to move into the merchant and craftsmen jobs that would create the middle class in Europe. During this time the papacy gained freedom from the state, and the crusades raged into the East killing countless Muslims and Jews. This flashcard set will help you to study for the SAT World History subject, covering chapters on the Medieval Warm Period, a period that played a pivotal roll in forming the class structures and relationship between church and state that we see in more recent European history.

Front
Back
The cause of the agricultural revolution from 1050 CE to 1300 CE in Europe.
Warmer climate due to climate change, political stability without Viking raiders, and the addition of new techniques and technology in agriculture contributed to food surplus.
the Medieval Warm Period
In about 950 to 1250 CE, global temperatures increased by 1 degree C (2 degrees F), resulting in more crops in Europe and less crops in the Mediterranean.
During the Medieval warm period, vikings no longer had to pillage for supplies because, _____.
they were able to grow their own food in the warmer climate.
the heavy plow
A heavy wedge of iron pulled behind oxen or other animals to cut deeper furrows in the wet soil than the earlier Roman version.
harrows
A tool used to level out the field after plowing, burying the seeds.
the horse collar
A collar that places the weight of an object being pulled on the horses shoulder, when used with the tandem harness and horseshoe this made for a faster beast of burden than oxen.
Crop rotation
Rotating land each growing season between cereals, plants that replace the nitrogen in the soil (oats, beans, and barley) and a fallow season in which nothing is grown to create better soil quality.
The Great Schism of 1054 CE, or the 'East-West Schism.'
The split between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism.
Papal authority
The Pope's power
With the capital of Rome in Constantinople, Rome _____ by 395 CE, creating the divide that would later show up as the divide between Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism.
split into Eastern and Western Empires
Eastern Orthodox churches used the _____ language in services.
Greek
The Western Catholic Church used the _____ language in services.
Latin
the Filioque clause
This clause addressed the authority given to the trinity in the wording of the Nicene creed, and was a point of disagreement between Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism.
the ecumenical patriarch
A title given to the Bishop of Constantinople claim his patriarchy above others, and putting him at odds with the Western Pope.
the Dark Ages
A term that refers to Europe after the Roman Empire fell in the 5th century.
manorialism
The Dark Ages' political structure, with Lords owning manors, while peasants work on a manor in exchange of protection, food, and shelter.
Edward the Confessor
A king of England, who produced no heirs and died in 1066.
Harold Godwinson
The most powerful and popular noble man to try to replace Edward the Confessor.
The King of _____ was one of the people to try to replace Edward the Confessor as King.
Norway
the Battle of Hastings
The battle in which William the Conqueror defeated King Harold who was weak from fighting off the King of Norway.
the Bayeux Tapestry
A narrative tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings, woven by William the Conqueror's wife and her ladies.
the Harrying of the North
William the Conqueror's suppression of revolts, via burning property and killing people and livestock, with an estimated 100,000 plus deaths.
the Domesday Book
A census of English people, property, and possessions by William the Conqueror.
William the Conqueror
The relative of Edward the Confessor who took the throne after the death of King Herald in the Battle of Hastings
Clergy
Individual with responsibility to the Roman Catholic Church and set religious duties; categories of which were first defined in the Middle Ages.
a parish
A church community
Priest
The clergy in charge of a parish, who works directly with the community.
sacraments
Religious rites and ceremonies performed by a Priest.
diocese
A grouping or district of parishes.
Bishop
The clergy man who oversees a diocese.
the archbishop
The clergy who controls the archdiocese.
archdiocese
A unified collection of diocese.
Cardinals
The senior most archbishops, who offered support to the Pope and would elect the next Pope.
The Investiture Conflict
A conflict between church (the Pope) and state (the Holy Roman Emperor) over who could appoint clergy that took place during the 11th and 12th centuries.
In Nomine Domini
A statement, translated as 'In the name of the Lord,' issued by a conference of clergy in 1059 CE declaring that the cardinals would choose the Pope.
Dictatus Papae
A statement from Pope Gregory VII in 1075 CE that excluded secular influence (Henry IV at the time) from the church.
the Great Saxon Revolt
A German rebellion in response to the weakened power of Henry IV once he had been deposed by the Church following the Dictatus Papae.
the Walk to Canossa
A scene in 1077 CE, with King Henry IV standing in the snow, barefoot to issue an apologize to the Pope.
Normans who helped Rome defeat Henry VI in 1081 made Pope Gregory VII unpopular by _____.
raping and pillaging Rome after being there at his request. The Pope was exiled.
the Concordat of Worms
A compromise that was reached in 1122 CE, giving the Church the right to elect it's own leaders and secular interest only unofficial participation.
The extreme increase in watermill building in the 11th century occurred because of _____.
the new agricultural surplus that could be processed by the mills in place of many human work hours, freeing up time to find more uses for mills.
Henry II
King of England, 1154 CE to 1189 CE, and first of the Angevin Kings from Anjou, France.
Eleanor of Aquitaine
Wife of Henry II and ex-wife of the King of France. The lands of: Wales, Anjou, Normandy, and Gascony were added to Henry II's rule.
King Richard I (Richard the Lionheart)
King of England from 1189 to 1199 CE, who spent most of his time away with the crusades.
the Magna Carta
Signed in 1215 CE by King John (the infamous King in Robin Hood) redistributed some of the King's rights to the nobility and protected nobility rights.
King Philip II (Philip Augustus)
King of France who returned the territories of Anjou, Normandy, and Gascony to French rule after their short governance by the English Angevin kings.
The Byzantine emperor, Alexius Comnenus, wrote to Pope Urban II for help because _____.
Turks had claimed Byzantine lands in Asia Minor and were threatening Constantinople.
Pope Urban II's goal
Increasing papal authority and power, and creating stability, peace and order in Europe by starting the crusades.
the Peace of God
Papal policy (Urban II) to protect those not fighting
the Truce of God
Papal policy under Urban II making certain holy days off limits for war.
the Crusader states
The four kingdoms created by the first crusades: County of Edessa (1098), the Principality of Antioch (1098), the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099), and the County of Tripoli (1104).
The Second Crusade
This crusade failed to take back Jerusalem before reaching it in the siege of Damascus and lost the county of Edessa.
the Third Crusade
Headed by Barbarossa (Germany), Philip Augustus (France), and Richard the Lionhearted (England), this crusade made no real progress.
the Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)
Marked by the fall of Constantinople when crusaders funded by trading companies were convinced to attack it rather than carry out Pope Innocent III's orders.
the Children's Crusade (1212)
A crusade of innocent youths; those who did not die trying to cross the Alps, were sold as slaves by the time they got to Marseilles.
the Fifth Crusade (1217-1221)
The fourth Lateran council chose to focus this crusade on Egypt, where the crusaders were defeated by Sultan Al-Kamil.
the Sixth Crusade (1228-1229)
A diplomatic victory; Jerusalem was negotiated for by Frederick II of German, the first crusades King to learn to speak Arabic.
the European urban revolution of the 12th century
The food and labor surpluses of the Medieval warm period led to an increased urban population and created a middle class of craftsmen and merchants.

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