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Urinary System Overview Flashcards

Urinary System Overview Flashcards
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Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

A group of cells found between the distal convoluted tubule and the renal corpuscle

Utilizes hormones to regulate blood pressure, blood flow through the kidneys, and filtration rate of the glomerulus

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Renal Corpuscle

The name given to the structure found in the renal cortex containing a glomerulus surrounded by a Bowman's capsule

Responsible for the ultrafiltration of blood

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Bowman's Capsule

Surrounds the glomerulus

Made up of one layer of epithelium

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Glomerulus

The capillary network found at the beginning of a kidney's nephrons in which blood is filtered

Unfiltered blood enters from the afferent arteriole and filtered blood leaves through the efferent arteriole

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Renal Artery

Originates from the abdominal aorta

Supplies blood to the left and right kidneys (one artery per kidney)

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Renal Hilum
A depression in the kidneys in which ureter, nerves, and the renal artery and vein are found
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Renal Papilla

The very top of a renal pyramid

Aids in sending the urine made in the kidney's medulla and cortex to the renal pelvis

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Renal Pyramid
Cone-shaped structure in the renal medulla inside the kidney that are topped by the renal papilla
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Renal Medulla

Found on the inside of the kidney, like a pit in a fruit, surrounded by the renal cortex

Contains renal pyramids

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Urethra
The canal that moves urine from the bladder out of the body
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Ureter

The structure in the urinary system that moves urine from the kidneys to the bladder

Shaped like a long tube

The human body has two, one connected to each kidney

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Nephron

A structure responsible for filtering blood and forming urine in the kidneys

Connected to the urethra by the ureters

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Flashcard Content Overview

As your blood circulates, it supplies the body's tissues with oxygen and nutrients while removing carbon dioxide and wastes. Carbon dioxide is released by the lungs, but what happens to the rest of the waste products? This is where the urinary system comes into play. These flashcards will review the key components of the urinary system, such as the juxtaglomerular apparatus, the glomerulus, and the loop of Henle, and how they work together to rid the body of wastes and balance the body's fluids. You will review the structure of the nephron and will also study some of the ways the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, or RAAS, and the kidneys control and regulate the urinary system.

Front
Back
Nephron

A structure responsible for filtering blood and forming urine in the kidneys

Connected to the urethra by the ureters

Ureter

The structure in the urinary system that moves urine from the kidneys to the bladder

Shaped like a long tube

The human body has two, one connected to each kidney

Urethra
The canal that moves urine from the bladder out of the body
Renal Medulla

Found on the inside of the kidney, like a pit in a fruit, surrounded by the renal cortex

Contains renal pyramids

Renal Pyramid
Cone-shaped structure in the renal medulla inside the kidney that are topped by the renal papilla
Renal Papilla

The very top of a renal pyramid

Aids in sending the urine made in the kidney's medulla and cortex to the renal pelvis

Renal Hilum
A depression in the kidneys in which ureter, nerves, and the renal artery and vein are found
Renal Artery

Originates from the abdominal aorta

Supplies blood to the left and right kidneys (one artery per kidney)

Glomerulus

The capillary network found at the beginning of a kidney's nephrons in which blood is filtered

Unfiltered blood enters from the afferent arteriole and filtered blood leaves through the efferent arteriole

Bowman's Capsule

Surrounds the glomerulus

Made up of one layer of epithelium

Renal Corpuscle

The name given to the structure found in the renal cortex containing a glomerulus surrounded by a Bowman's capsule

Responsible for the ultrafiltration of blood

Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

A group of cells found between the distal convoluted tubule and the renal corpuscle

Utilizes hormones to regulate blood pressure, blood flow through the kidneys, and filtration rate of the glomerulus

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

The first duct within the renal tubule

Receives ultrafiltrate from the renal corpuscle

Reabsorbs majority of ultrafiltrate, including glucose, into the bloodstream

Loop of Henle

The duct after the proximal convoluted tubule

Consists of three parts:

-Thin descending limb: reabsorbs water into the bloodstream

-Thin and thick ascending limbs: reabsorb ionic minerals

Distal Convoluted Tubule

The duct within the renal tubules after the loop of Henle

Reabsorbs ionic minerals into the bloodstream

Regulates urine pH through proton secretion and bicarbonate absorption

Collecting Duct

Channeling structure at the end of the collecting tubule

Balances the pH, water, and electrolytes of the urine

Important for removing urine from the kidneys

Label the parts of the nephron in the order in which filtrate passes through them

A: renal corpuscle

B: proximal convoluted tubule

C: loop of Henle

D: distal convoluted tubule

E: collecting duct

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS)

Important for the control of blood pressure throughout the body and in the kidneys

Also controls glomerular filtration rate

Controlled by inhibitory feedback mechanisms

Renin

Enzyme released by juxtaglomerular cells following a drop in blood pressure

Causes the angiotensinogen protein to convert to the angiotensin I precursor hormone

Angiotensin II

Hormone made in the lungs from angiotensin I

Leads to an increase in renal perfusion pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and the body's blood pressure

Causes aldosterone to be released

Aldosterone

Hormone released through action of angiotensin II

Increases salt and water reabsorption in the renal tubules, which helps increase blood pressure

Leads to potassium secretion in urine

Inhibitory Feedback Loop in Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
Increase of angiotensin II levels causes a decrease in renin release by juxtaglomerular cells, which then decreases angiotensin II production
Function of the Kidneys

Balances body's acid and base levels

Excretes wastes from the bloodstream

Balances body water levels

Osmoregulation

The active control of electrolytes and fluids entering and leaving the cells or the body

Primarily controlled for the entire body by the kidneys

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