Acid Rain: Effects & Causes

Instructor: Margaret Cunningham
This lesson will focus on the environmental problem known as acid rain. It will also explore the causes and effects of acid rain, along with how it is measured and what is being done to reduce acid rain.


Most people think of rain as refreshing and beneficial to the environment, but not all types of rain are a good thing. Acid rain is one type of rain that is harmful to the environment. Although the name might give you the impression that this type of rain is pure acid falling from the sky, acid rain is actually created when certain gases are mixed with atmospheric moisture to create precipitation that is more acidic than normal.

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are two of the gases involved in the creation of acid rain. When these gases are released into the environment and mixed with water, oxygen, and other chemicals, they create acidic compounds, such as sulfuric acid and nitric acid, which results in the formation of acid rain.

Although rain is most commonly thought of as wet, acid rain can come in both a wet or dry form based on how the acidic materials fall from the atmosphere. When the acidic materials fall from the atmosphere in a wet form, they fall as rain, sleet, snow, or fog. In the dry form, acid rain can fall from the atmosphere as gases or particles. Both the wet and dry forms of acid rain can be carried by the wind and travel a far distance before being deposited.

Acid Rain Cycle
acid rain diagram

Causes of Acid Rain

The causes of acid rain can be both natural and man-made. In terms of natural sources, both volcanoes and decaying vegetation release gases that result in the formation of acid rain. However, the majority of gases come from man-made sources such as fossil fuel combustion.

In the United States, around 2/3 of sulfur dioxide and 1/4 of nitrogen oxides in the atmosphere are released from electric power generation due to the burning of fossil fuels. The exhaust from vehicles also releases nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxides into the air, and as the number of vehicles driven increases, so does the amount of gases released and the risk of acid rain.

Measurement of Acid Rain

We use the pH scale to measure acid rain. The pH scale is a scale for measuring how acidic a substance is. It runs from zero, most acidic, to 14, most basic, with a pH of 7 being neutral. Although pure water is known to have a pH of 7, normal rain water has a slightly more acidic pH of around 5.6. This pH level is due to the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that dissolves into a weak carbonic acid. Acid rain has an average pH of 4.2-4.4, which is almost ten times more acidic than normal rain.

The level of acidity can be determined using high-tech devices or using litmus paper. Litmus paper is commonly used due to its ease and simplicity. When litmus paper is exposed to a substance it changes color depending on the acidity of the substance. If a substance is very acidic the paper will turn bright red and if the substance is very basic it will turn dark blue. The litmus paper will turn a variety of colors to indicate acidity levels in between extreme acids and bases.

pH Scale with Environmental Effects
pH scale

Effects of Acid Rain

Overall, the environment and its inhabitants are adapted to survive with a certain acidity level. Acid rain in both the dry and wet forms can travel far distances, and when acid rain falls it can dramatically alter the acidity level of the habitat and cause a great deal of damage to the living and non-living things in the habitat. Acid rain can negatively influence human health because it can create particles in the air that can cause respiratory problems or make breathing more difficult. Acid rain can also damage building materials and paints. Due to the increased acidity in the rain, building materials decay at a faster rate and paint peels more rapidly. The acidity also wears down stone statues, making then appear older and reducing their value.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 10 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member

Already a member? Log In

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 100 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,900 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Click "next lesson" whenever you finish a lesson and quiz. Got It
You now have full access to our lessons and courses. Watch the lesson now or keep exploring. Got It
You're 25% of the way through this course! Keep going at this rate,and you'll be done before you know it.
The first step is always the hardest! Congrats on finishing your first lesson.
Way to go! If you watch at least 30 minutes of lessons each day you'll master your goals before you know it.
Congratulations on earning a badge for watching 10 videos but you've only scratched the surface. Keep it up!
You've just watched 20 videos and earned a badge for your accomplishment!
You've just earned a badge for watching 50 different lessons. Keep it up, you're making great progress!
You just watched your 100th video lesson. You have earned a badge for this achievement!
Congratulations! You just finished watching your 200th lesson and earned a badge!
Congratulations! You just finished watching your 300th lesson and earned a badge!
You are a superstar! You have earned the prestigious 500 video lessons watched badge.
Incredible. You have just entered the exclusive club and earned the 1000 videos watched badge.
You have earned a badge for watching 20 minutes of lessons.
You have earned a badge for watching 50 minutes of lessons.
You have earned a badge for watching 100 minutes of lessons.
You have earned a badge for watching 250 minutes of lessons.
You have earned a badge for watching 500 minutes of lessons.
You have earned a badge for watching 1000 minutes of lessons.