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Math 102: College Mathematics14 chapters | 108 lessons

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Lesson Transcript

Instructor:
*Kathryn Maloney*

Kathryn teaches college math. She holds a master's degree in Learning and Technology.

In this video, we will add to our knowledge of sets. We will talk about cardinality, infinite, finite, equal and the empty set. I think you will find these very straightforward, so let's begin.

Before we be begin to talk about cardinality and types of subsets, let's review sets. A **set** is a collection of elements. An **element** is a collection of anything - numbers, letters, words, or objects. Using math symbols, this means element:

The number of elements in a set is called the **cardinality** of the set. The cardinality of set *V* = {car, truck, van, semi} is four. There are four elements in set *V*.

There are two ways I have seen the symbol for cardinality. The first has straight bars, like the absolute value symbol. In symbols, |*V*| = 4. The cardinality of set *V* is 4. The second way I've seen it written is with an *n* and then the set in parenthesis. In symbols, *n*(*V*) = 4. The cardinality of set *V* is 4.

An **empty set** is one that is, well, empty. It doesn't have any elements. Let's say set *E* is an empty set. We can write set *E* in symbols like this:

The cardinality of set *E* is 0. We would write it as |*E*| = 0. Be warned, zero is not an element in the set; it simply means the set has no elements!

Let's look at the set of primary colors: *P* = {red, yellow, blue}. We can say that set *P* is a **finite set** because it has a finite number of elements. Finite means we can count the number of elements. In this case, set *P* has 3 elements: red, yellow, and blue. Set *P* has a cardinality of 3 because there are 3 elements in the set. We would write it as |*P*|= 3.

An **infinite set** is a set with an infinite number of elements. There are two types of infinite sets - countable and uncountable. A *countable infinite set* is one that can be counted in one sitting, though you may never get to the last number. An example of a countable infinite set is the set of all integers. An *uncountable infinite set* is one that cannot be counted because it is too large. An example of an uncountable infinite set is the set of all real numbers. The set of all real numbers equals all rational numbers and irrational numbers.

**Equal sets** are those that have the exact same elements in both. Let's say set *A* = {red, blue, orange} and set *B* = {orange, red, blue}. Then, set *A*= set *B*. We can say set *A* = set *B* because they have the same elements - red, blue, orange - even though they are not in order.

**Equivalent sets** are those that have the same cardinality, or number of elements. Let's say set *Q* is {red, blue, orange} and set *R* is {3, 4, 6}. We can say set *Q* is equivalent to set *R* because they both have a cardinality of 3. They both have 3 elements. Equivalent doesn't mean they have to be the same elements.

**Cardinality** of a set is the number of elements in that set. It can be written like this:

An **empty set** is one that doesn't have any elements. An empty set can be written like this:

A **finite set** has a countable finite number of elements.

An **infinite set** is a set with an infinite number of elements. There are two types of infinite sets: countable and uncountable.

**Equal Sets** are those that have the exact same elements in both.

**Equivalent Sets** are those that have the same cardinality.

Upon reaching the end of this lesson, you could be able to:

- Recognize cardinality, empty set, equal sets and equivalent sets
- Contrast finite and infinite sets and provide examples of each
- Create cardinality and empty sets using math symbols

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Math 102: College Mathematics14 chapters | 108 lessons

- Go to Logic

- Mathematical Sets: Elements, Intersections & Unions 3:02
- Cardinality & Types of Subsets (Infinite, Finite, Equal, Empty) 4:13
- Venn Diagrams: Subset, Disjoint, Overlap, Intersection & Union 6:01
- Categorical Propositions: Subject, Predicate, Equivalent & Infinite Sets 4:24
- How to Change Categorical Propositions to Standard Form 3:28
- What is a Two-Way Table? 3:40
- Go to Sets

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