Back To CourseAP Physics 1: Exam Prep
12 chapters | 136 lessons
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Sarah has two Master's, one in Zoology and one in GIS, a Bachelor's in Biology, and has taught college level Physical Science and Biology.
A long time ago, there lived a really smart guy named Galileo Galilei. Galileo was a great scientist, with interests in physics, math, astronomy, and philosophy. One of his most important contributions to the scientific world was a discovery he made about moving objects.
Earlier, another famous guy, Aristotle, had said that there were two kinds of motion: natural and unnatural. He believed that natural motion occurred without a force - things like the sun, the moon, and other, similar types of objects in the sky moved without anything pushing or pulling them. Unnatural motion then, was motion that required a force - something pushing or pulling the object to make it move.
But Galileo discovered that this was, in fact, not correct! Galileo said that, yes, a force was needed in order to get an object moving, but once that object was moving, it would keep moving even with no force acting on it. Through various experiments, he was able to show that all objects have the tendency to remain as they are - either at rest or in motion. This property is called inertia, and it's not a force, rather it is the property of matter to resist changes in motion.
So, if an object is moving, it resists not moving, and if it's stationary, it resists movement. That's inertia! This was a great discovery indeed. But, a little while later, another great scientist named Isaac Newton came along (the guy under the apple tree) and refined Galileo's idea of inertia. Galileo was concerned with how things moved; Newton was interested in why things moved.
Newton's work gave Galileo's concept of inertia the status of a scientific law, his first law, usually called the law of inertia. This law states that 'every object continues in its state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a net force.' In summary, objects at rest stay at rest, and objects in motion stay in motion unless a force changes their state.
Inertia is pretty cool stuff. You know that famous trick of pulling a table cloth out from under dishes on a table? The dishes don't fall off the table because of inertia - they're at rest, so that's how they stay! Satellites in orbit stay in orbit because they are already moving - no force acts on them to stop them from doing so.
There's a caveat here, though. Friction is a force that affects motion. You've experienced friction plenty of times; that burn you feel sliding down a metal slide is friction between your skin and the slide. When you rub your hands together, there's friction between them. Your car stops at a red light because your foot pushes your brake parts together, creating friction. Friction occurs for solids, liquids, and gases, and acts in the direction that is opposite to the direction of motion. The amount of friction depends on the surface of the objects moving against each other, so it's an important factor in the movement (or rest) of objects.
Larger objects are generally harder to get moving than smaller objects, right? This is because larger objects tend to be more massive. Mass, which is a measure of inertia, is the amount of matter in an object. The mass of something depends on the amount and type of 'stuff' it's made of. Kick an empty can, and it's easy to get moving because it's not very massive. But fill the can with lead, and it's much harder to kick into motion because lead is very massive.
This also means that the more massive an object is, the more inertia it has. This makes sense because an object made of more 'stuff' will be harder to either get moving or stop moving. Would you rather try to move an elephant or a mouse? How about stopping a speeding semi or a speeding motorcycle? Both the elephant and the semi have more mass, so they have more inertia. It would be much easier to move the mouse and stop the motorcycle because they have less mass, and therefore less inertia.
Be careful, though, because larger objects are not always more massive. Your pillow is clearly larger than your car battery, but the car battery is more massive because it is made of more 'stuff.' That stuff just happens to be packed into a smaller space than the 'stuff' in your pillow.
One thing that mass is not is weight. On Earth, we tend to use them interchangeably, but weight is the force on an object due to gravity. On Earth, they're similar because we have a fair amount of gravity here. But out in space where gravity is minimal, an object will still have mass even if it doesn't have weight. It won't lose the stuff it's made of (its mass), but the force pulling that stuff down will be less (its weight). And in case you're wondering, Newton also has some pretty interesting thoughts on mass, but we'll learn about that in another lesson!
Thanks to the hard work of Galileo and Newton, inertia finally got its due. Inertia is the tendency of objects to remain as they are - either at rest or in motion. Newton's first law of motion, often called the law of inertia, takes this one step further by staying that 'every object continues in its state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a net force.' Basically, this says that unless a force gets an object to move, it will stay in place, or it will stay in motion unless a force stops it.
And here's where friction comes into play. Friction, a force that affects motion, is something we often experience on Earth. It stops your feet from sliding across the ground with each step you take and makes it difficult to get something moving on a rough surface. But in its absence, like in space, objects, such as satellites, are free to continue moving without bothersome forces like friction stopping them.
Mass, which is the amount of matter in an object is directly related to that object's inertia. More massive objects (like elephants) will be harder to move or stop from moving, while objects that are less massive (like mice) will be easier to get moving or stop moving. This is because more massive objects have more inertia, so it takes more force to stop or start their motion.
Be careful not to confuse this with weight, because weight is the force on an object due to gravity. They are related because objects with more mass will also have more weight. But in places like space, where gravity is minimal, objects will be just as massive even if they no longer weigh anything!
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Back To CourseAP Physics 1: Exam Prep
12 chapters | 136 lessons