Back To CourseAP Physics 1: Exam Prep
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Sarah has two Master's, one in Zoology and one in GIS, a Bachelor's in Biology, and has taught college level Physical Science and Biology.
In another lesson, we learned about force, which is a push or pull resulting from an interaction between objects. Because a force has both magnitude and direction, it is a vector quantity. The magnitude is the 'how much,' and the direction is the 'which way' of the force.
All things can exert forces, sometimes without even touching the other object it's interacting with! Friction, which is the force that acts on an object in the direction opposite to the motion, is the resistance you feel when you drag something across the floor. Weight is another force, but this one is the force due to gravity. You don't need to be touching the earth to be pulled down to it by gravity!
Regardless of whether or not the objects are touching, if there is an interaction, there will be at least one pair of forces in that interaction. The bag you're dragging across the floor exerts a force opposing the friction. When you push your accelerator pedal in your car, the pedal pushes right back on your foot. Even just standing on the ground, gravity pulls you down, and at the same time, the floor pushes you upward.
Often, the pair of forces are balanced, meaning the forces are equal in size and opposite in direction. When this happens, the object will maintain its state of motion. When you are standing in place on a surface, you are interacting with the ground, but you may not notice it because the forces in the interaction are balanced. Gravity is pulling you downward just as much as the floor pushes up on you.
Think about a large basket hanging from a string. If it's just hanging there without moving, the basket is also involved in an interaction and is experiencing balanced forces. The upward tension on the string has the same magnitude as the weight of the basket pulling down, but the forces are in opposite directions, so they essentially cancel each other out.
When an object remains in its state of motion, we say it is in mechanical equilibrium. This is when there is no change in an object's state of motion. To write this, we use the equation:
The 'sigma' symbol means 'vector sum of,' and 'F' is the forces. What we're saying is that the vector sum of the forces is zero - because remember, force is a vector quantity, so it's the sum of the vectors.
Since equilibrium is a state of 'no change,' it's not limited to objects at rest. State of motion includes objects that are traveling in a straight line path, too. And, as long as the forces are balanced, that object will keep traveling in that straight line path.
Take a bowling ball for example. If you send a bowling ball rolling down the lane and it rolls at a constant velocity, it remains in equilibrium until it hits the pins. This is because the vector sum of the forces on the ball is still zero, even though it's moving!
Let's look at another example. An airplane flying at a constant velocity (so, flying at a constant speed and direction) is in equilibrium because the thrust of the propeller pushes it forward at the same magnitude as the opposing air resistance. Because the forces are acting in opposite directions but are equal in magnitude, the forces are balanced, and the moving object is in equilibrium - a state of no change.
To distinguish between the two, we specify equilibrium for stationary objects as static equilibrium, and equilibrium for moving objects as dynamic equilibrium. But remember, they are both mechanical equilibrium.
As you have probably experienced, forces are not always balanced. Unbalanced forces are when the forces are not equal in magnitude, which causes a change in the object's state of motion.
If your coffee table is at rest in your living room, you can get it moving by pushing on it, which results in an unbalanced force. That bowling ball from before? When it hits the pins, there's a new interaction with the pins and a resulting unbalanced force that both disrupts the ball from its path and knocks over the pins.
Unbalanced forces can be thought of as starting or stopping motion. Objects at rest do not need a force to remain at rest, but an unbalanced force is needed to get it moving. Likewise, an object in dynamic equilibrium does not need a force to keep it moving (as long as there is no friction). But to stop it from continuing along its straight line path, an unbalanced force is needed.
A force is the push or pull resulting from an interaction between objects. Though it may not feel like it, even when you are just standing still, you're involved in an interaction. You are being pulled down by gravity, and at the same time, the floor you stand on pushes back up on you.
The reason you may not notice the forces is because they are balanced. This means that the forces are equal in size and opposite in direction. The pull downward is the same magnitude as the push upward, but in the opposite direction, so they essentially cancel each other out.
Moving objects can also experience balanced forces, like a plane flying through the sky at a constant velocity.
When an object has no change in its state of motion, it is in equilibrium. We express this as:
Or the vector sum of the forces is zero. We use the term static equilibrium for objects at rest and dynamic equilibrium for objects in motion that have a constant velocity.
When the magnitude of the forces in an interaction are not equal, the forces are unbalanced. An unbalanced force is needed to change the state of motion of an object in equilibrium, regardless of whether that object is at rest or moving in a straight line path.
Following this lesson, you should be able to:
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Back To CourseAP Physics 1: Exam Prep
12 chapters | 136 lessons