Franz Joseph Gall & Phrenology Theory: Definition & Overview

Instructor: Sarah Collins
Learn about phrenology. Understand the theory behind its practice and how it was used to help explain human personality and behavior. Learn about its important role in the developement of neurology.

Introduction

Take a look at this woman (yes, that's a woman).

Deformed Head

Well, let's jump in our time machine--the one behind the refrigerator--and go back to 1810. Load her--we'll call her Maggie--into our buggy and we'll zoom across the German landscape to make our 10 a.m. appointment with Dr. Franz Joseph Gall.

Franz Joseph Gall

Phrenology Explained

Gall is a physician who looks a lot like George Washington and has theorized that human personality and behavior is based on the shape and size of regions in the brain. These different regions control everything from the ability to perceive color to a tendency towards superstition. Gall felt the best way to examine the shape and size of the regions without a patient having to have his or her head cut open was to examine the shape of the skull. Examining the skull to better understand the brain is called phrenology. The word 'phrenology' is the combination of the Greek words phren or 'mind' and logos or 'knowledge.' It's kind of a Princess and Pea phenomenon. Remember the fairy tale where the princess became aware of a pea under mattress because of the bump she felt when lying down?

Gall asks Maggie to take a seat. As he examines her head, he takes out a measuring tape and measures many sections of Maggie's skull. He then asks her to remove her impressive ponytail so he can feel her entire skull. He's checking for elevations and depressions. 'Your hands are cold!' she says sternly. Once he's taken all the data, he references a chart similar to this one:

Phrenology Chart

As you can see, each area of the brain has been given domain over some type of personality attribute, feeling, or behavior. Let's look at Maggie's melon again. Her forehead area is pretty narrow and squashed, while the back end is significantly elongated (you think to yourself that her mother should get a trophy for what that labor must have been like). Dr. Gall says, 'Well, Maggie, I can see that you are very, very consistent and firm with whatever you do and that your self esteem is through the roof which is good considering...uh. Well, also, you seem to be very conscientious and love to make friends.' So, far this rings true to you as she had already invited you and I to the movies during the buggy ride over. Dr. Gall continues (cautiously, because her combativeness region is also very much over developed), 'Well, you have some difficulty with language, it's amazing that you arrived here on time, and you don't have much of a sense of humor.' Maggie is visibly upset (he was right!) and grabs your arm to get going. She yells, 'Quack!' as the buggy speeds away.

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