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Joshua holds a master's degree in Latin and has taught a variety of Classical literature and language courses.
You might already be familiar with the term 'parable.' Perhaps you associate it with stories about Jesus from the biblical Gospels. However, the parable - a short narrative using metaphor and symbolism to illustrate a moral point - has been used since long before his time.
Parables like those in the bible or the holy books of Buddhism demonstrate the tendency of these stories to be largely religious in nature. Nevertheless, some, such as those used by Socrates and other Greek thinkers of the 5th century B.C. on, appear in a philosophical or other secular context. The word 'parable' itself is derived from the Greek paraballein, and three alternative meanings of this verb can help demonstrate some of the narrative's characteristics:
Now that we've seen what they are and what they do, let's take a look at some parables from a variety of religious and philosophical traditions.
First, let's take a look at 'The Good Samaritan':
Many of the parables told by Jesus have parallels in other traditions. However, some belong to a special group of indigenous Jewish tales called, meshalim. These 'coded speeches' are parables that represent a long history of Hebrew moral storytelling and can be in the form of simple tales or long riddles. Though now widely known, it is obvious that Jesus originally intended the 'Parable of the Good Samaritan' specifically for his Jewish brethren.
Questioned by a lawyer concerning whom he should consider his 'neighbor,' Jesus tells the story of a rich man who was mugged and left for dead while traveling one day. Both a Jewish priest and a Levite (member of the Hebrew tribe of religious elders) pass the injured man without stopping. Finally, a Samaritan - a group of people historically ridiculed as 'unclean' in Jewish eyes - stops to tend to the man's wounds and pays for his stay at an inn. When asked who the man's true neighbor was, the lawyer must of course reply the Samaritan. Jesus' symbolism here not only instructs him to help those in need, but also not to prejudge people due to their perceived differences.
Next, let's take a look at 'The Prodigal Son':
This parable has versions in two religious texts: the bible and the Lotus Sutra, one of the holiest volumes for Mahayana Buddhists. In the biblical version, Jesus tells the story of a rambunctious young man who, against his wealthy father's wishes, decides to take his inheritance early. The misguided youth quickly blows through all the money and is left starving and destitute in a pigsty. When he finally returns to his father out of desperation and disgrace, the man welcomes his son home with open arms.
A similar situation occurs in the Buddha's story, when another rich man's son steals his father's money and runs off. Once he has wasted all he had, he is left begging in the streets, where he is eventually found by his father, who has become even richer during his son's absence. The rich man, unrecognized by his son, hires the young man on his estate. The son works hard and is granted several promotions in the household, but it is not until his father's death that he discovers he has inherited all that he has worked so diligently to be worthy of. Both versions of this parable symbolize a return to spiritual harmony in the presence of God (the wealthy father), either through humble acceptance (biblical) or hard work (Buddhist).
Finally, let's look at the story of 'The Emperor's New Clothes':
Although the majority of parables are connected to philosophical or religious ideas, some of them also communicate morals of a more secular nature. Those addressed in this parable by Hans Christian Andersen pertain to the social pride and fear present in our tendency not to admit when we're wrong. The story goes that a vain emperor who was particularly fond of dressing extravagantly once entertained two crooks claiming to be weavers of an amazing fabric that would be invisible to the incompetent and dim-witted.
Of course this piqued the emperor's vanity, and the con artists set to their work on the invisible cloth immediately. They continued to steal more and more precious textiles that they 'wove' into the cloth; however, each person sent to investigate found an empty loom. Not wanting to appear stupid or unfit for their positions, none of the court officials lets anyone know he saw nothing, and soon the emperor himself gets to 'see' his new clothes. Realizing he can't see the fabric either, the emperor goes along with the charade that everyone else in the city is playing, since none of them can see the wonderful new garments. Finally, a child points out that the emperor is wearing nothing, but the proud ruler keeps marching in procession.
A parable is a short moralizing narrative most often associated with religious teachings. However, philosophical and other more routine secular examples of the genre also exist. Derived from the Greek verb paraballein, the parable demonstrates characteristics reflected in its various meanings: 'parallel construction,' 'comparison,' and 'guidance.'
Parables most often appear alongside larger moral or philosophical discussions. The narrative usually involves two (or more) scenarios the audience must choose from, thereby actively engaging them in the process.
Parables are meant to instruct listeners on a particular moral point in a way that is relatable to them. Many of these tales have multiple similar versions in circulation, such as 'The Prodigal Son', which has both biblical and Buddhist ties. Some of the parables told by Jesus, such as 'The Good Samaritan' probably originated from traditional Hebrew tales known as meshalim, or 'coded speeches'. Other parables, like 'The Emperor's New Clothes' by Hans Christian Andersen, help us confront issues that we deal with in more ordinary everyday situations.
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Back To CoursePSAT Prep: Help and Review
18 chapters | 194 lessons