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Pointillism: Definition, History & Artists

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  • 0:02 Pointillism
  • 0:57 Notable Pointillists
  • 3:08 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Kevin Newton

Kevin has edited encyclopedias, taught middle and high school history, and has a master's degree in Islamic law.

Pointillism is an artistic technique that uses tiny dots of color to create a depth of light. A number of artists in the 19th century experimented with the depths of imagery possible with this new method.

Pointillism

Originating with Impressionist masters, pointillism relies on using tiny dots of varying colors to create depth in a work of art. By doing so, the artist is able to create incredibly subtle variations in color that would have appeared otherwise clumsy. Especially popular during the 19th century, the style is considered part of the Post-Impressionist period, a movement that continued many of the ideals of Impressionism - namely the ability of the artist to place what appears in the mind's eye on canvas for the viewer.

Such an emphasis on color comes at a substantial cost in terms of shape and movement. Only a handful of works were able to avoid the appearance of stiltedness, and practically every Pointillist work looks posed, unlike many of the earlier Impressionist works, which seem to capture a moment of life untamed.

Notable Pointillists

Georges Seurat

Perhaps the most famous of the Pointillists is Georges Seurat: a French artist who lived during the late 19th century. During his tragically short life - he died at age 31 - he served as one of the true pioneers of Pointillism.

Further, he combined considerable mastery of chromoluminarism, or the practice of leaving white spaces on the canvas between the dots, to create a level of light that was otherwise impossible. Among his most famous works is A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of Grande Jatte.

While the forms may look artificial, the color leaps off the canvas much like one would expect on a summer afternoon.


Paul Signac

Another prominent Pointillist was Paul Signac, famous for his travels throughout the Mediterranean. The bright colors possible with the pointillist technique lent itself very well to portraying the exotic images, at least by Parisian standards. Among his major works is The Grand Canal (Venice).


Maximilian Luce

Maximilian Luce began his career as a typical Impressionist then ventured into Pointillist techniques for a greater exploration of color. His Morning, Interior demonstrates significant Impressionist leanings, especially with the detail given to create creases and wrinkles in the sheets on the bed.

When compared to Seurat's work, there is considerable loss of color, but the viewer loses no great knowledge of Luce's vision due to his use of pointillism for more than just color. Not surprisingly, Luce returned to more traditional ways of exploring art through Impressionism later in his career.


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