Login
Copyright

Replication of DNA Viruses

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: Replication of RNA Viruses

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
 Replay
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:05 DNA Replications Strategies
  • 0:52 Entry and Integration…
  • 2:00 Replication and…
  • 4:04 Lesson Summary
Add to Add to Add to

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Login or Sign up

Timeline
Autoplay
Autoplay
Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account

Recommended Lessons and Courses for You

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Artem Cheprasov
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.

DNA Replications Strategies

Some of the most well-known viruses, such as those that cause herpes, smallpox, hepatitis and warts, have a DNA based genome. These viruses must have slightly different replication schemes compared to their RNA brethren in order to make a living. That's because their genome is the same type of genome as their host animal cell. However, the problem is that certain DNA viruses don't follow the same replication schemes as most other DNA viruses. There are exceptions to everything in science, and in order to avoid giving you a massive headache, we'll focus in on the core basics of the replication sites, schemes and terms associated with DNA viruses.

Entry and Integration of DNA Viruses

DNA viruses that infect humans have a double-stranded DNA genome encased in a protective shell, called a capsid, which may in turn be enclosed in an envelope. These envelopes give viruses certain advantages, like ease of infection. On the flipside, an envelope makes a virus more sensitive to environmental destruction.

In any case, once the virus gains entry into the human body, it must touchdown on the surface of a cell it's going to infect. I picture it almost like a moon landing of sorts. Viruses have little adhesion molecules, like legs on a lunar module, that will stick to the surface of a cell, or the moon's crust. Once the virus, our lunar module, touches down on the surface of its cell, it will then trick the cell into allowing it entry into the cytoplasm, or the mantle of the moon. After drilling down below the surface of the moon, through the mantle, or cytoplasm, the DNA viral genome enters into the core of the moon, or the nucleus of the cell. This is where it will do its dirty work.

Replication and Release of DNA Viruses

Once the viral DNA is integrated into the host DNA, this provirus uses the host cell machinery to copy its genome for future virus babies. In addition, it uses the host cell's polymerase, an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nucleic acids, to make mRNA from its DNA in a process known as transcription. After the mRNA is made, it is sent to the host cell's ribosomes, which are the protein builders of the cell. You can think of the mRNA as one of those barcodes on the receipt of a product you may have recently bought. The ribosome will scan the barcode and will produce a product. Each barcode from each virus may be a bit different. Hence, when the ribosome, like a clerk at a store, scans the barcode, they will go get you a different type of product.

In this case, these products are proteins and enzymes that are used to either build the structural components of the virus, such as the capsid, or adhesion molecules, I mentioned before. Or, in some cases, they are enzymes that will be utilized for replication. In addition to making proteins and enzymes, the viral DNA must also be copied. Once this has been done, the DNA, along with the proteins for the structural components, are all packaged up into a neat little viral bundle. This bundle will need to leave the moon and may do so through different mechanisms, such as budding or lysis.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.
Create your account

Register for a free trial

Are you a student or a teacher?
I am a teacher
What is your educational goal?
 Back

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 10 million people use Study.com

Become a Study.com member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account
Support