Education Portal is now! Same great content, just under a new name. Learn more

What is Thermal Energy? - Definition & Examples

  • 0:05 What is Thermal Energy?
  • 1:15 Application of Thermal Energy
  • 3:30 Geothermal Energy
  • 4:55 Lesson Summary
Create An Account
To Start This Course Today
Used by over 10 million students worldwide
Create An Account
Try it free for 5 days
Lesson Transcript
Instructor: John Simmons

John has taught college science courses face-to-face and online since 1994 and has a doctorate in physiology.

This lesson defines and identifies examples of thermal energy everywhere from your kitchen to the Earth's core. We'll discuss geothermal energy, a renewable energy source, as well.

What is Thermal Energy?

Have you ever wondered what makes something hot? The answer may be more simple than you think. The temperature of an object increases when the molecules that make up that object move faster.

Thermal energy is energy possessed by an object or system due to the movement of particles within the object or the system. Thermal energy is one of various types of energy, where 'energy' can be defined as 'the ability to do work.' Work is the movement of an object due to an applied force. A system is simply a collection of objects within some boundary. Therefore, thermal energy can be described as the ability of something to do work due to the movement of its particles.

Because thermal energy is due to the movement of particles, it is a type of kinetic energy, which is the energy due to motion. Thermal energy results in something having an internal temperature, and that temperature can be measured - for example, in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit on a thermometer. The faster the particles move within an object or system, the higher the temperature that is recorded.

Application of Thermal Energy

Let's take a look at a simple example of thermal energy. A heated element on a stove contains thermal energy, and the more you turn up the stove, the more internal energy the stove contains. At the very basic level, this thermal energy is the movement of the molecules that make up the metal of the stove's element. I know you can't see the molecules moving, but they are. The faster the molecules, the more internal thermal energy they contain.

Now let's place a pot of water on top of the heated element. What happens? The stove works, right? Well, not as we would typically think of it. Here, 'work' is referring to 'the movement of something when a force is applied.' Specifically, the thermal energy of the stove causes the particles of the pot and eventually the water to move faster. The internal energy of the heated element is transferred to the pot and ultimately the water within the pot. This transfer of thermal energy from the stove to the pot and to the water is referred to as heat. It is very important to keep these terms straight. In this context, heat is the term we use to refer to specifically the transfer of thermal energy from one object or a system to another, transfer being the key. The thermal energy is the energy possessed within the object or within the system due to movement of particles. They're different - heat and thermal energy.

You can feel the heat if you hold your hand above the stove. The heat, in turn, speeds up the molecules within the pot and the water. If you place a thermometer in the water, as the water heats up you can watch the temperature rise. Again, an increase in internal energy will result in an increase in temperature.

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy originates in the core of the Earth and radiates to the surface.
Geothermal Energy Diagram

To unlock this lesson you must be a Member.
Create your account

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 10 million people use

Become a member and start learning now.
Become a Member

Already a member? Log In

Start Your Free Trial To Take This Quiz

As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 10,000 lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed.

Free 5-day trial
It only takes a few minutes to set up and you can cancel at any time.
Already registered? Login here for access

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 100 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,900 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.