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Who Is Henry Hudson? - Facts, Voyage & Route

  • 0:02 Introduction
  • 0:51 Hudson's Four Voyages
  • 2:53 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Crystal Daining

Crystal has a master's degree in history and loves teaching anyone ages 5-99.

Henry Hudson was an English explorer and navigator. Learn more about his life and the four important expeditions that he made while trying to find a direct route from Europe to Asia in this lesson.

Introduction

Henry Hudson (1565-1611) was an English explorer and navigator who helped with the first European explorations of the Arctic Ocean and northeastern North America. Little is known about his early life, until Hudson was hired by the Muscovy Company in 1607. The Muscovy Company wanted Henry Hudson to find a direct waterway from Europe to Asia.

Hudson was known to be very headstrong and adventurous. He undertook four major expeditions to try to find the direct waterway from Europe to Asia. His relentless search for this waterway resulted in Hudson helping discover New York City's excellent harbor, as well as drawing European attention to the vast natural resources of North America.

Hudson's Four Voyages

In Hudson's first voyage, Hudson and his crew struggled with icy and cold conditions from the very beginning. They were only able to explore some of the islands near Greenland before they had to turn back. However, Hudson's reports noted an abundance of whales in the area, so many Europeans used this knowledge to start whale hunts.

In Hudson's second voyage the following year, Hudson tried again to find a direct route from Europe to Asia. Hudson attempted this by trying to go north of Russia through the Arctic Ocean. However, this also proved a failure as the route was eventually blocked by ice.

On Hudson's third voyage Hudson decided to try going west to find the route to Asia. He and his crew crossed the Atlantic Ocean and first came ashore in what is now Nova Scotia. It was on this trip he found New York City harbor and explored the coast and up some of the rivers, including the Hudson River named for him, before returning to England.

For Hudson's fourth and final voyage, Hudson left England in April 1610. He and his crew again headed west. This time, they went a bit more north and ended up in an area later named after him, called Hudson Bay. Hudson explored this bay quite thoroughly to find his passage to Asia; however, he soon found that the bay was a dead end. By the time he realized this, he and his crew were low on supplies and trapped in the ice. They had to spend the winter in this way, which led to high tensions between Hudson and his crew.

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