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Ch 18: Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Anatomy and Physiology of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems chapter of this Human Anatomy and Physiology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master an understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding the HPG axis or the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Anatomy and Physiology of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Anatomy and Physiology of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question about the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:

  • How does meiosis I reduce the number of chromosomes in a cell?
  • How does meiosis II result in four haploid cells?
  • Which parts of the male reproductive system are involved in the creation and transport of sperm and seminal fluid?
  • What are the functions of the accessory glands of the male reproductive system?
  • What are the anatomical structures of the testicles?
  • What are the external structures of the male reproductive system?
  • How is sperm produced?
  • How does sperm travel from the testes to the urethral orifice?
  • Which hormones involved in the male reproductive system are produced by the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis?
  • What are the internal structures of the female reproductive system?
  • What are the structures of the uterus and uterine wall?
  • What are the external structures of the female reproductive system?
  • How are eggs produced?
  • Which hormones produced by the HPG axis control the ovarian cycle?
  • What are the phases of the ovarian cycle?
  • Which hormones are involved in the follicular phase of the ovarian cycle?
  • Which hormones are involved in the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle?
  • What are the phases of the uterine cycle?
  • How does the endometrial tissue change during menses?
  • How does the endometrial tissue change during the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle?
  • Which endometrial changes are associated with the secretory phase of the uterine cycle?
  • How do the brain and ovaries coordinate hormone production so that the ovarian and uterine cycles run smoothly?
  • How does the oocyte travel from the ovary to the uterus where it implants?

48 Lessons in Chapter 18: Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division

1. Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division

How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!

Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division

2. Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division

Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.

Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy

3. Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy

Ever wonder what the inside of a male looks like? Find out in this lesson that explores the inner workings of the male reproductive system and the pathway that sperm takes.

Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions

4. Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions

Males require a number of different glands to aid in the production of semen. Find out more about those glands in this lesson covering the male accessory glands.

Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams

5. Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams

Ever wonder about where sperm is made? Find out in this lesson covering the function and anatomy of the male testes. We'll talk about sperm and testosterone production and how the two work together.

Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy

6. Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy

Learn about the structure and function of the external reproductive structures of the male. This includes study of the scrotal sac, the parts of the penis and the erectile tissues.

Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm

7. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm

In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.

Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice

8. Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice

Follow newly created sperm as they make their way from their origin of creation, the male testes, all the way to the exit of the male reproductive tract.

The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction

9. The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction

Do you know how your body communicates? How does the brain get in touch with other parts of the body? In this lesson, you will learn about how the male's brain uses hormones to communicate to the testes as a way of regulating reproduction.

Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy

10. Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy

Ever wonder where a female produces her eggs or how they get from the ovary to the uterus? Find out in this lesson about the internal reproductive anatomy of females.

The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts

11. The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts

Learn all about the structure responsible for the development of babies in this lesson on uterine anatomy. Discover the three layers of the uterus and each layer's purpose.

External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

12. External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System

We all know that men and women are different. But just how different are they? Learn a little more about the differences between men and women in this lesson on female external reproductive anatomy.

Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs

13. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs

Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.

HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle

14. HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle

Everything in the female reproductive system is connected. See how the brain interacts with the ovaries during the female's ovarian cycle in this lesson covering the female HPG axis.

Phases of The Ovarian Cycle: Overview from Puberty to Menopause

15. Phases of The Ovarian Cycle: Overview from Puberty to Menopause

Just like the human body has to grow and mature before it is ready to reproduce the female's gamete, the egg also has to grow and mature. This lesson will introduce the process through which that occurs, the ovarian cycle.

Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

16. Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

The female gamete, the oocyte, grows and matures in a process known as the ovarian cycle. Learn about the first part of the ovarian cycle, the follicular phase, in this lesson.

Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

17. Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle

Each month, the ovaries recruit and mature a subset of oocytes in preparation for ovulation. Learn what happens after ovulation occurs in the second phase of the ovarian cycle, known as the luteal phase.

The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes

18. The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes

Just like a woman's ovaries go through the monthly cycle of recruiting eggs, her uterus also goes through a monthly cycle as it prepares for the possible implantation of a fertilized egg. This lesson will introduce you to the phases and hormones of the female's uterine cycle.

The Uterine Cycle: Menses

19. The Uterine Cycle: Menses

Each month the female's uterus prepares for the potential of pregnancy. However, pregnancy doesn't occur the majority of the time. In those months, the female's uterus has to 'reset' itself for the next month. It does that during the first phase of the uterine cycle, menses.

The Uterine Cycle: Proliferative Phase

20. The Uterine Cycle: Proliferative Phase

A woman's body goes through many changes as it prepares for the possibility of pregnancy. Learn about how the uterus prepares for pregnancy by building up its inner lining during this lesson on the proliferative phase of the uterine cycle.

The Uterine Cycle: Secretory Phase

21. The Uterine Cycle: Secretory Phase

The third (and final) phase of the uterine cycle is the secretory phase. During this phase, the uterine tissue regrowth is completed in preparation for the possibility of pregnancy and the implantation of a fertilized egg.

The Female Reproductive Axis: Coordination of the Brain, Ovaries & Uterus

22. The Female Reproductive Axis: Coordination of the Brain, Ovaries & Uterus

Without proper communication between the brain, ovaries and uterus, reproduction might not be as efficient. Learn about how these organs work together to ensure the body is ready for reproduction.

Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes

23. Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes

Follow the female's egg as it leaves the ovary and travels down the uterine tube on its way to the uterus - all with hopes of meeting up with a male's sperm along the way.

Food Aversions During Pregnancy: Definition & Treatment

24. Food Aversions During Pregnancy: Definition & Treatment

After completing this lesson, you will have a better understanding of food aversions during pregnancy. A short quiz follows this lesson so that you can test your knowledge.

What is Dilation? - Definition & Meaning

25. What is Dilation? - Definition & Meaning

Dilation is a key factor in regulating body processes. In this lesson, you will learn the definition of dilation, the purpose of it, and examples of its use in the body.

What Is the Uterine Cavity? - Size & Definition

26. What Is the Uterine Cavity? - Size & Definition

The uterus is a key structure in reproduction and fetal development. The uterine cavity, found in the uterus, is a major player in these processes. Let's discuss the structure and functions of the uterine cavity in the female reproductive system.

What Is the Uterus? - Function, Operation & Definition

27. What Is the Uterus? - Function, Operation & Definition

This lesson will define the human uterus in terms of its anatomical features and location in the body. Also, the general function and operation of the uterus will be described as it relates to the human reproductive cycle. A short quiz will follow.

HELLP Syndrome: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

28. HELLP Syndrome: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

HELLP is an acronym to describe a series of symptoms that affect a very small percentage of pregnant women. The symptoms of HELLP syndrome are potentially life-threatening to the mother and unborn baby. Learn what HELLP syndrome is and what the treatment is for it.

Misoprostol: Uses & Side Effects

29. Misoprostol: Uses & Side Effects

This lesson will familiarize you with the drug misoprostol, its only approved use to prevent stomach ulcers and the alternative uses in pregnancy that are more commonly known but also dangerous.

Multipara: Definition & Risks

30. Multipara: Definition & Risks

Multipara is a term that describes the number of pregnancies and children a woman has had. Learn more about what multipara means and its associated risks.

What Is a Hysterectomy? - Definition, Procedure, Complications & Side Effects

31. What Is a Hysterectomy? - Definition, Procedure, Complications & Side Effects

In this lesson you will learn about a surgical procedure known as a hysterectomy, which involves the removal of a woman's uterus. This lesson will also discuss the reasons one might need to undergo this procedure, and it will be followed with a short quiz.

What Is Abstinence? - Definition & Facts

32. What Is Abstinence? - Definition & Facts

In this lesson, you will learn about a medical term called abstinence. We will also learn facts, surrounding the practice of abstinence, in relation to sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections.

What Is Amenorrhea? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

33. What Is Amenorrhea? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

After completing this lesson, you will be able to define amenorrhea and describe its causes, symptoms and treatment. A short quiz follows the lesson to test your new knowledge.

What Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

34. What Is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a medical condition that causes an enlargement of the prostate gland. This lesson will discuss this condition and its causes, symptoms and treatment options.

What Is Chloasma? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

35. What Is Chloasma? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to define what chloasma is, identify what causes this condition, and describe treatment options. A short quiz follows the lesson.

What Is Colostrum? - Definition, Benefits & Side Effects

36. What Is Colostrum? - Definition, Benefits & Side Effects

Did you know colostrum can be taken as a supplement to help boost immunity and may even make you a better athlete? Learn more about colostrum, its benefits and its side effects in this lesson.

What Is Dysmenorrhea? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

37. What Is Dysmenorrhea? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

In this lesson, you will learn about dysmenorrhea, which many women experience around the time of their menstrual cycles. Discover the symptoms and treatment methods associated with dysmenorrhea and test your knowledge with a quiz.

What Is Dyspareunia? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

38. What Is Dyspareunia? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Pain during sexual intercourse is quite the opposite of what nature intended. Why does it happen? Does it happen more often in men or women? And what can be done about it? This lesson answers all of these questions.

What Is Eclampsia? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

39. What Is Eclampsia? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Eclampsia is a very serious complication of pregnancy involving seizures and convulsions. Learn more about the definition, symptoms and treatment, and test your knowledge with a quiz.

What Is Ectopic Pregnancy? - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

40. What Is Ectopic Pregnancy? - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Many women get pregnant every day around the world. Occasionally, something goes wrong at the very beginning of pregnancy, which causes the fertilized egg to not implant in the uterus. Learn what ectopic pregnancy is and what the symptoms, causes and treatments are for it.

What Is Gynecomastia? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

41. What Is Gynecomastia? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

After completing this lesson, you will be able to describe gynecomastia, including its causes, symptoms, and treatment options. A short quiz follows the lesson so that you can test your new knowledge.

What Is Mammography? - Definition & History

42. What Is Mammography? - Definition & History

Ever wonder what a mammogram machine does and who would think to invent it? If so, you came to the right place. This article details what mammography is and the history behind this great advancement for breast health.

What Is Menarche? - Definition, Age & Growth

43. What Is Menarche? - Definition, Age & Growth

After completing this lesson, you will be able to describe menarche, including the normal growth and development pattern associated with puberty. A short quiz follows this lesson so that you can test your new knowledge.

What is Menopause? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

44. What is Menopause? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Menopause occurs in women after their menstrual cycle ends, and it marks the end of their child-bearing years. Though it is a natural process, read this lesson to learn about symptoms and possible treatment options to alleviate symptoms.

What Is PID? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

45. What Is PID? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

In this lesson, we'll discuss what pelvic inflammatory disease is, situations that can lead to the disease, what it looks and feels like, and how it is treated. Potential complications are also briefly discussed.

What Is PSA? - Definition, Test & Normal Levels

46. What Is PSA? - Definition, Test & Normal Levels

In this lesson, we will learn about the prostate gland in men. We will briefly discuss prostate cancer and review how to screen for prostate cancer with the use of PSA testing.

Testicular Cancer: Symptoms, Treatment & Causes

47. Testicular Cancer: Symptoms, Treatment & Causes

Did you know that most testicular cancers can be cured with the proper treatment? Learn more about testicular cancer, its causes, and more, and then test your knowledge with a quiz.

Adnexa Uteri: Definition & Functions

48. Adnexa Uteri: Definition & Functions

This lesson is going to give you a working definition of adnexa uteri and the parts that make up the adnexa uteri. We will also discuss the various functions of these parts and what they do in the body.

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