About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP Biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP Biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding cellular transport, cell structures and cell biology
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about cell biology
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the cell biology chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know; review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the cell biology exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any cell biology question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a cell biology unit of a standard AP Biology course. Topics covered include:
- Active and passive transport in cells
- The cytoskeleton
- The parts of the nucleus
- Endocytosis and exocytosis
- Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
- The endomembrane system
- The structure of mitochondria
- Chloroplast structure
1. How a Phospholipid Bilayer Is Both Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic
In this lesson, we will learn what gives phospholipids a dual personality. How can this molecule be both hydrophobic and hydrophilic, and why is this important to a cell?
2. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we will discuss the components of the cell membrane and why the fluid mosaic model paints the best picture of its structure. We'll learn about the roles of the phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, proteins and carbohydrates.
3. Passive Transport in Cells: Simple and Facilitated Diffusion & Osmosis
A cell membrane is selectively permeable - not permeable to everything. In this lesson, we'll talk about methods of passive transport along a concentration gradient, including simple and facilitated diffusion and osmosis.
4. Active Transport in Cells: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn how substances are transported across the cell membrane against the concentration gradient. This might seem like an uphill battle for the cell, but all it takes is a little chemical energy and a few integral membrane proteins to kick off some active transport!
5. Endocytosis and Exocytosis Across the Cell Membrane
In this lesson, we'll discover how some cells can eat, drink, and digest their dinner through the process of endocytosis and a structure called the lysosome. In addition, we'll learn how a cell can throw out the leftovers across the cell membrane during exocytosis.
6. Structure of the Nucleus: Nucleolus, Nuclear Membrane, and Nuclear Pores
In this lesson, we'll discuss the organization and importance of the nucleus in your cells. This is the membrane-bound structure responsible for containing all the genetic material essential to making you who you are.
7. The Ribosome: Structure, Function and Location
The ribosome is the cellular structure responsible for decoding your DNA. In this lesson, we'll learn about ribosome structure, function and location - characteristics that make it a very good genetic translator.
8. The Endomembrane System: Functions & Components
In this lesson, we'll learn about the endomembrane system, which consists of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. This system is important in making, packaging, and shipping all sorts of goodies for the cell to use!
9. The Cytoskeleton: Microtubules and Microfilaments
In this lesson, we'll learn about the cytoskeleton of your cells. This network of microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments helps different types of cells maintain a unique set of characteristics, including shape and movement.
10. Mitochondria Structure: Cristae, Matrix and Inner & Outer Membrane
If you want to make it through the day, you're going to need some energy. In this lesson, we'll learn about the organelle that supplies this energy, the mitochondrion, and why this cell structure appreciates the time you took to eat breakfast this morning!
11. Chloroplast Structure: Chlorophyll, Stroma, Thylakoid, and Grana
In this lesson, we'll explore the parts of the chloroplast, such as the thylakoids and stroma, that make a chloroplast the perfect place for conducting photosynthesis in plant cells.
12. Plant Cell Structures: The Cell Wall and Central Vacuole
In this lesson, we'll talk about some of the things that make plant cells so different from our cells. In addition to being mean, green photosynthesizing machines, plant cells have cell walls and central vacuoles to make them unique!
13. Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells: Similarities and Differences
In this lesson, we discuss the similarities and differences between the eukaryotic cells of your body and prokaryotic cells such as bacteria. Eukaryotes organize different functions within specialized membrane-bound compartments called organelles. These structures do not exist in prokaryotes.
14. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
15. What is a Phospholipid? - Structure, Functions & Composition
Your body is made up of cells, but what makes up the cells? Phospholipids are important molecules that provide structure and protection to cells - the very basic units of life.
16. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: Definition, Structure & Functions
Cells contain many parts. Each of these parts have specific functions to ensure the survival of living things. In this lesson, you will learn about the part of the cell known as the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
17. Centriole: Definition, Structure & Function
This lesson is about centrioles, an important part of cells. This lesson will cover what a centriole is, what its role is in different cells, and what it's made of.
18. Depolarization: Definition & Concept
Many cells use electrical stimulation to communicate with each other. This process starts with depolarization. The lesson looks at the role of depolarization in the electrical communication within and between cells.
19. Heat Shock: Method & Explanation
What is heat shock? Read more to learn what happens when your body becomes overheated and cells need help to survive. Then take the quiz to see how much you've learned!
20. Homology: Definition & Examples
Homologous organisms are everywhere. This lesson defines homology and offers different examples of homology. Take the quiz that follows to demonstrate your understanding of this topic.
21. Metaphase I: Stages of Meiosis
This lesson addresses metaphase 1 and the process of meiosis. It includes key concepts such as cell division, chromosome number, and nondisjunction. Illustrations, explanations, and real-world examples are included.
22. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis: Definition & Example
Receptor-mediated endocytosis is one of the ways we get nutrients and materials into a cell. The receptors on the outside of the cell act to keep out unwanted materials and take in things the cell needs. We will explore this specific type of endocytosis here.
23. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: Definition, Functions & Structure
Without them you couldn't survive, but you probably know nothing about them. We're referring to an organelle called smooth endoplasmic reticulum. This lesson will explain why this organelle is important as well as look at its structure and function.
24. Triacylglycerol: Structure & Function
Find out why triacylglycerol, more commonly known as fat, is important for our health. Explore the structure of triacylglycerol and how its chemical properties provide us with the energy our bodies need.
25. The Difference Between Plant and Animal Cells
While both plant and animal cells are eukaryotic and share many similarities, they also differ in several ways. Learn about the key differences between these two cell types in this lesson.
26. Monerans: Definition, Examples & Types
In this lesson you'll learn about monerans, the group of organisms that bacteria belong to. Discover the name's history and the function(s) of different types of bacteria in the environment.
27. Anchorage Dependence: Definition & Overview
In this lesson, we will look at what anchorage dependence means. We will also see why anchorage dependence is important in cells, how cells 'know' if they are anchored to a surface, and what happens if cells become anchorage independent.
28. Cell Membrane Analogies
This lesson focuses on the cell membrane. We'll go over what the cell membrane is and look at several analogies to help understand it further, then you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
29. Do Red Blood Cells Have a Nucleus?
In this lesson, we'll answer the question: 'Do red blood cells have a nucleus?' We will discuss how stages of red blood cell maturation complicate this question and come to a final answer on the topic.
30. Do White Blood Cells Have Nuclei?
In this lesson, we will not only answer this question, but we will explore what a white blood cell is and the role that the nucleus plays in visually identifying each type of white blood cell.
31. Glycoprotein Function in the Cell Membrane
When located in the cell membrane, glycoproteins help to identify, adhere to and communicate with the cell, among other functions. In this lesson, we'll discuss how glycoprotein completes these functions in the cell membrane.
32. How Do Sugar Molecules Cross the Cell Membrane?
Sugar molecules cannot cross the cell membrane on their own. Special proteins embedded in the cell membrane are required to transport sugar across the cell membrane. Read on to learn more about this process and take a quiz.
33. How Does the Cell Membrane Maintain Homeostasis?
Maintenance of homeostasis is important to the survival of an organism. In this lesson, you will learn what mechanisms allow the cell membrane to play a major part in maintaining homeostasis for the cell and the organism.
34. Importance of Carbohydrates in the Cell Membrane
Carbohydrates are crucial for protecting cells and for differentiating host cells from intruders. In this lesson, we'll explore what carbohydrates are, as well as their important functions in the cell membrane.
35. Major Structural Components of the Cell Membrane
What are cell membranes and how are they constructed? What do the pieces of a cell membrane do? This lesson will answer these questions by investigating major membrane components.
36. Major Type of Lipid Found in the Cell Membrane
Cell membranes are made from many different molecules; however, the most pertinent is arguably the lipid. This lesson will discuss which type of lipid forms the majority of the membrane. A brief quiz and summation are included.
37. Nucleus Function in Animal Cells
In this lesson, we'll go over what a nucleus is and some of its important structures. We'll also learn what the nucleus does in animal cells and why those functions are important.
38. Parts of the Cytoskeleton
Learn about the three parts of the cytoskeleton: microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. We will cover their structure and the important jobs they perform in the cell.
39. Proteins in the Cell Membrane
Membrane proteins are key to a cell's survival. From receiving messages to transporting important molecules in and out of the cell, proteins have important and dynamic roles. Explore types of proteins in the cell membrane and the roles they play.
40. What Substances Pass Through the Cell Membrane by Diffusion?
In this lesson, we'll discuss the structure of the cell membrane and how this influences diffusion. Then, we'll give three examples of substances that can move by diffusion alone through the membrane.
41. The Role of the Nucleus in the Cell
The nucleus of the cell acts like the control center, storing the information needed for the cell to do everything it needs to do. This lesson will discuss how that information is stored and used.
42. Do Eukaryotic Cells Have a Nucleus?
In this lesson, you will learn about eukaryotic cells and finally have an answer to the question you have been dying to know your whole life: Do eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and what is it?
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Biology: Help and Review course
- AP Biology - Science Basics: Help and Review
- AP Biology - The Origin of Life on Earth: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Evolution: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Inorganic Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Enzymatic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Requirements of Biological Systems: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Cell Division: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Metabolic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - DNA and RNA: Help and Review
- AP Biology - DNA Replication: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Transcription and Translation: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Genetics and Heredity: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Genetic Mutations: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Classification of Organisms: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Plant Biology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Plant Reproduction and Growth: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Animal Reproduction and Development: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Circulatory & Respiratory Systems: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Nervous & Endocrine Systems: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Ecology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Animal Behavior: Help and Review
- Laboratory Techniques in Molecular Biology: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Laboratory: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Analyzing Scientific Data: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Basic Molecular Biology Lab Techniques: Help and Review