About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP Biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP Biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the differences between DNA and RNA
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about DNA and RNA
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the DNA and RNA chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the DNA and RNA chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any DNA or RNA question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a DNA and RNA unit of a standard AP Biology course. Topics covered include:
- Adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine
- Chemical structures of nucleic acids and phosphodiester bonds
- Complementary base pairings in DNA
- Double helix structures and hereditary molecules
- Differentiating between DNA and RNA
- The three types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA and rRNA)
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Double Helix Structure and Hereditary Molecule
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. Centromere: Definition & Structure
Eukaryotic chromosomes use special non-coding DNA sequences to carry out important tasks. In this lesson, you'll learn about one of these sequences, the centromere, and its roles in making sure chromosomes separate properly into daughter cells.
6. DNA Helicase: Definition, Role & Function
Learn about DNA helicase and the role it plays in starting the process of DNA replication.This lesson also covers information on how DNA helicase functions. After reading, you can test your understanding by taking the quiz.
7. DNA Replication Fork: Definition & Overview
DNA defines an individual and is shaped like a spiral staircase. But how is DNA replicated if it is so twisted? Learn what a DNA replication fork is and its importance in this lesson.
8. Francis Crick: DNA Discoveries, Overview
This lesson will discuss the life and scientific contributions of Francis Crick, a prominent English physicist and biochemist who was part of the team responsible for the discovery of the structure of the DNA molecule.
9. Recombinant DNA: Definition, Applications & Methods
This lesson is all about recombinant DNA, which is DNA that has been combined from multiple sources. If you ever wondered about GMO's or how scientists are manipulating DNA to cure diseases, this article is for you!
10. Reverse Transcriptase: Definition, Function & Structure
This lesson is about reverse transcriptase, a protein that copies RNA to DNA inside cells. It defies the idea that DNA is always copied to RNA inside cells. This rebel protein is responsible for the current epidemic of drug resistant HIV.
11. Allopolyploid: Definition, Speciation & Example
This lesson will describe what allopolyploidy means and how it occurs. Speciation through allopolyploidy and examples of allopolyploidy will be covered as well.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Biology: Help and Review course
- AP Biology - Science Basics: Help and Review
- AP Biology - The Origin of Life on Earth: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Evolution: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Inorganic Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Enzymatic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Cell Biology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Requirements of Biological Systems: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Cell Division: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Metabolic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - DNA Replication: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Transcription and Translation: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Genetics and Heredity: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Genetic Mutations: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Classification of Organisms: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Plant Biology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Plant Reproduction and Growth: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Animal Reproduction and Development: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Circulatory & Respiratory Systems: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Nervous & Endocrine Systems: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Ecology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Animal Behavior: Help and Review
- Laboratory Techniques in Molecular Biology: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Laboratory: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Analyzing Scientific Data: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Basic Molecular Biology Lab Techniques: Help and Review