About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP Biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP Biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a circulatory, respiratory, digestive, excretory and musculoskeletal systems unit of a standard AP Biology course. Topics covered include:
- Connective and epithelium tissues
- Muscular and skeletal systems
- The human vascular system
- The heart, hemoglobin and red blood cells
- The human respiratory system and gas exchange
- Upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts
1. Multicellular Organisms, Tissues and Epithelium
In this lesson on multicellular organisms, you'll take a look at what it actually means to be multicellular and how cells are organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems. This lesson also covers one of the four main tissue types: epithelial tissue.
2. Types of Connective Tissue
In this lesson, you'll learn about the various types of connective tissues in the body. These tissues include bone, fat, cartilage and blood. They form the framework of the body, support organs and much, much more!
3. Skeletal System and Muscular System
Do you know how many bones are in the human body? Check out this video lesson to uncover the answer, as well as understand the role and importance of the skeletal and muscular systems.
4. Circulatory System I: Types of Circulatory Systems
From cnidarians to humans, all animals need a circulatory system to absorb nutrients and get rid of waste. Find out why different kinds of animals have different systems, and see what a closed circulatory system and indoor plumbing have in common.
5. Circulatory System II: The Human Vascular System
In this lesson, learn all about the operation of the human vascular system. What are the different types of blood vessels? How does blood flow through the human body? How does the system adapt to your body changing?
6. Circulatory System III: The Heart
What purpose does the heart serve? And how do different types of hearts function? In this lesson, you'll learn about two, three and four-chambered hearts.
7. Circulatory System IV: Red Blood Cells
Why don't mature red blood cells have nuclei or mitochondria, and how do these guys squeeze through capillaries? While learning about the brief but glorious lives of red blood cells, you'll also see which characteristics help them transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to other cells.
8. Circulatory System V: Hemoglobin
Did you ever wonder how red blood cells can store enough oxygen to supply the entire human body? Join us in this lesson on hemoglobin to learn why red blood cells are so good at transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. This lesson will make you see red (as well as blue and purple-maroon)!
9. Gas Exchange in the Human Respiratory System
Did you know that the average human lung has a respiratory surface area that is roughly the same size as half of a tennis court? Believe it or not, that's how much surface area an active, healthy human needs to ensure that the body gets plenty of oxygen.
10. Digestive System I: The Upper Gastrointestinal Tract
Did you know that there are digestive enzymes in your saliva? It's true. As soon as you put a piece of food in your mouth, the digestive process begins. Join us with this first of two lessons about the human digestive system, where we'll follow food through the upper gastrointestinal tract from the mouth through the stomach.
11. Digestive System II: The Lower Gastrointestinal Tract
The lower gastrointestinal tract is the part of the digestive system that is responsible for the last part of food digestion and the expulsion of waste from the body. In this lesson, we'll look at each part of the system and what functions each serves in the process of digestion.
12. Excretory System
Each year in the U.S., close to 400,000 people with kidney failure undergo dialysis treatment in order to remove waste, remove excess fluid and restore electrolyte balance. Kidneys, the workhorses of the excretory system, perform these same functions more effectively than any machine. In this lesson, we'll talk about how the excretory system removes toxic substances from the body.
13. Hypoglossal Nerve: Function, Palsy & Damage
This lesson covers the function and structure of the hypoglossal nerve. We will also cover some of the effects of damage to this system, including paralysis.
14. Mesoderm Layer: Definition, Development & Formation
During fertilization, the young embryo goes through some rapid growth in the first few days after conception. Among this rapid growth is the beginning of the mesoderm, one of three of the important layers that give rise to our organs. We will discuss the mesoderm here.
15. Renal Artery: Definition & Function
Most people have two renal arteries, which are important blood vessels transporting oxygenated blood into each of the kidneys so they can function properly. In this lesson, discover the path this oxygenated blood takes from your heart to the kidneys.
16. Ureter: Definition & Function
In this lesson, you will explore the function of the paired ureters, as well as how their structure enables them to transfer urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
17. What Are Blood Clots: Symptoms & Causes
In this lesson, you will learn how blood clots form. You will discover why blood sometimes clots when it shouldn't, and you will learn some of the symptoms associated with abnormal blood clots. A quiz at the end of the lesson will test your knowledge.
18. Chyme: Definition & Function
In this lesson we will learn what chyme is and where it's produced as well as how it's produced, the function it serves, and what factors influence the creation of this substance.
19. Afferent Arteriole: Definition & Function
An afferent arteriole connects the renal artery to the glomerular capillary network in your kidney's nephron, starting the filtering process. It also takes action that controls blood pressure.
20. Efferent Arteriole: Definition & Function
In this lesson, we'll review blood flow and the pressure differences that allow physiological processes in the kidneys to occur. We'll also define what an arteriole is and why it is referred to as an efferent arteriole in the urinary system.
21. Do Humans Have an Open or Closed Circulatory System?
Our circulatory system provides a network through which our blood flows constantly. However, there are two types of circulatory systems in the animal kingdom: open and closed. Which do humans have? Read on to find out.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the AP Biology: Help and Review course
- AP Biology - Science Basics: Help and Review
- AP Biology - The Origin of Life on Earth: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Evolution: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Inorganic Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Organic Chemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Enzymatic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Cell Biology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Requirements of Biological Systems: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Cell Division: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Metabolic Biochemistry: Help and Review
- AP Biology - DNA and RNA: Help and Review
- AP Biology - DNA Replication: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Transcription and Translation: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Genetics and Heredity: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Genetic Mutations: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Classification of Organisms: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Plant Biology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Plant Reproduction and Growth: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Animal Reproduction and Development: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Nervous & Endocrine Systems: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Ecology: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Animal Behavior: Help and Review
- Laboratory Techniques in Molecular Biology: Help & Review
- AP Biology - Laboratory: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Analyzing Scientific Data: Help and Review
- AP Biology - Basic Molecular Biology Lab Techniques: Help and Review