About This Chapter
AP World History: Ancient Middle East - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The Middle East was an area of great prosperity for the earliest civilizations on Earth. In this chapter, our knowledgeable and engaging instructors will inform you about these various civilizations, including what they built, what they believed, and how they lived. You'll learn about early Egyptians, Indians, and Hebrews and the characteristics of the societies they formed. Our lessons each focus on a specific subject, so you'll learn about the Bronze and Iron Ages by looking at the people who lived during them. After completing this chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain why the areas in the Middle East were ripe for civilization
- Talk about some early writings found in these civilizations
- List aspects of ancient Middle East societal structures
- Elucidate various religious beliefs of the era and region
|The Fertile Crescent: Cradle of Civilization||Explore the features that made the Fertile Crescent such a lovely place to build a civilization and which kingdoms dominated there.|
|The Epic of Gilgamesh||Learn about the Sumerians' view of the gods in this ancient myth that questions whether or not immortality can be achieved.|
|Heirs of the Sumerians: Babylonians, Hittites, Hurrians, and Assyrians||Discover the culture, technology, art, and architecture of these kingdoms in the region.|
|Hammurabi's Code: The Advent of Law, Prerequisites, and Implications||Examine this ancient text that is one of the first instances of written law in civilization.|
|What's the Difference Between Polytheism and Monotheism?||Compare and contrast polytheistic and monotheistic religions, categorizing some of the more prevalent ones.|
|The Hebrews and Their Beliefs||Take a look at the main beliefs and laws of Judaism, including the Jewish holy texts of the Torah and the Talmud.|
|Ancient Egypt in the Bronze Age||Understand Egyptian society and what was accomplished by this civilization at the height of the Bronze Age.|
|The Achievements of the Egyptians||Explore the achievements of kings and pharaohs, including the use hieroglyphs, the construction of the pyramids, and the creation of a calendar.|
|Egyptian Women: Royalty, Privileges, and Tradition||Compare and contrast the roles, responsibilities, and rights of Egyptian women as compared to their Mesopotamian counterparts.|
|The Egyptian Social Structure||Understand the structure of society in Egyptian culture, which can be thought of like a pyramid.|
|Iron vs. Bronze: History of Metallurgy||Learn about the differences between iron and bronze and how different metals were discovered and used.|
|Iron Age Empires: Neo-Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian, and Persian Empires||Discover the three empires that emerged after the Bronze Age collapse and what they are known for.|
|Cult of Mithras: Myth and History||Examine this Roman mystery cult, what myths are at its core, and how its followers worshiped.|
|Zoroastrianism: Definition, Beliefs, and History||Take a look at this ancient religion and philosophy with two opposing forces at its core.|
|Mesopotamian Kings: History, Politics, and Religion||Explore the kings who ruled Mesopotamia and how they used religion to justify and secure their power.|
|Indus Valley Civilization||Understand this Bronze Age society in India and why this was also a great place to start a civilization.|
|The Aryans Arrive||Learn about the Aryans and what happened when they arrived in the Indus Valley. Take a look at the caste system in this society.|
1. The Fertile Crescent: Cradle of Civilization
This lecture begins by exploring the features that made Mesopotamia such an appealing place to build an empire. It briefly discusses the challenges faced by historians of Mesopotamian history. Finally, we examine the material culture of the Sumerian/Akkadian empires, and their pivotal role as the inventors of civilization.
2. The Epic of Gilgamesh
Witness the Epic of Gilgamesh, a story of adventure, love and friendship. This long poem will help us examine the hallmarks of civilization for a Sumerian and the importance of dreams. We'll also cover the Sumerian contributions to the epic form of literature.
3. Heirs of the Sumerians: Babylonians, Hittites, Hurrians and Assyrians
This lecture covers the history of Mesopotamia from the disintegration of the Sumerian Empire to the great Bronze Age collapse. We'll explore the destructive force of the Elamites and the Hittites as well as the imperial ambitions of the Babylonians, the Mittani and the Assyrians.
4. Hammurabi's Code: The Advent of Law, Prerequisites and Implications
This lecture discusses the need for law and the benefits of a judicial system. Next, it reviews the history of early law codes, like those of Ur-Nammu and Hammurabi. Finally, we look at the implications of law for kings.
5. What's the Difference Between Polytheism and Monotheism?
This lecture discusses the origins of monotheism. It then compares monotheism to polytheism, with especial emphasis on the problematic nature of holy law. Finally it uses the Greek story of Hippolytus to compare the ancient polytheistic perspective to a modern christian perspective.
6. The Hebrews and Their Beliefs
This lesson covers the Hebrews and their beliefs. We look at the core tenets of Judaism and explore some of the stories from the Torah. Finally, we see how the Hebrews' history of oppression impacted their religion and the world today.
7. Ancient Egypt in the Bronze Age
This lecture first compares the natural features of the Nile valley to those of Mesopotamia, enumerating the advantages that geography offered the Egyptians. This is followed by a brief discussion of why Egyptian material culture survives while so much of Mesopotamian culture has been lost. The lecture ends with a a whirlwind tour through 3,000 years of Egyptian history broken up into traditional historical periods.
8. Egyptian Achievements: Unification, Pyramids, Hieroglyphics & Calendar
In this lesson, we will discuss some of the major achievements of ancient Egypt, including its unification by King Menes, the pyramids, hieroglyphics, and the Egyptian calendar.
9. Egyptian Women: Royalty, Privileges & Tradition
In this lesson, we will study ancient Egyptian women. We will focus especially on the rights and privileges they enjoyed in the legal, economic, and social realms, and we will meet Egypt's most famous female ruler.
10. Egyptian Social Structure: From Slaves to Pharaoh
In this lesson, we will explore ancient Egypt's social structure. We'll start at the top of this great pyramid with the Pharaoh and work our way to the bottom, where we'll find peasants and slaves.
11. Iron vs. Bronze: History of Metallurgy
This lecture explores the transition from the bronze age to the iron age. The difficulties of working with iron are enumerated. The properties of iron and steel are compared to those of bronze. Finally the implications for this transition on civilization are considered.
12. Iron Age Empires: Neo-Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian and Persian Empires
This lesson is a survey of the three empires that emerged after the Bronze Age collapse. Parts of the survey are viewed from the perspective of the Israelites, who found themselves the playthings of powerful empires. The lecture focuses on a few specific rulers and their impact on their empires. It also traces patterns of imperial tactics throughout this period and region.
13. Cult of Mithras: Myth & History
The Cult of Mithras was a mysterious religion popular in Rome in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th centuries. This lesson explores the secretive beliefs, practices, and history of the cult and its initiates.
14. Zoroastrianism: Definition, Beliefs & History
Major religions, like Christianity and Islam, have been popular since ancient times, but what religion was popular before these belief systems developed? This lesson explores the beliefs of Zoroastrians, one of the earliest forms of organized religion.
15. Mesopotamian Kings: History, Politics & Religion
Ancient Mesopotamia was a land of chaotic weather and inner turmoil. Religion became a political weapon for fighting among the city-states. This lesson explores the link between religion and politics in the ancient land.
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Other chapters within the AP World History: Exam Prep course
- AP World History: Foundational Concepts
- AP World History: Major Belief Systems
- AP World History: Ancient Times
- AP World History: Ancient China, Africa, India & America
- AP World History: Ancient Greece
- AP World History: Hellenism and Athenian Philosophy
- AP World History: The Rise of the Roman Republic
- AP World History: The Fall of the Roman Empire
- AP World History: The Dark Ages
- AP World History: Early Middle Ages
- AP World History: The Medieval Warm Period
- AP World History: The High Middle Ages
- AP World History: Asia, Africa & America (1000-1300 CE)
- AP World History: The Late Middle Ages
- AP World History: The Renaissance
- AP World History: The Age of Exploration
- AP World History: The Reformation Across Europe
- AP World History: The Elizabethan Era
- AP World History: The Enlightenment
- AP World History: Political, Technological, and Intellectual Developments (1750-1914)
- AP World History: Colonialism
- AP World History: Imperialism
- AP World History: World War I
- AP World History: World War II
- AP World History: The Cold War and Other 20th Century World History
- AP World History: A Globalized World - 1980 & Beyond
- Portions of the AP World History Exam
- How to Write a Good Essay on Your AP Exam
- Developing and Writing Your AP Exam Essay