About This Chapter
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- Verify you're ready by completing the Art History and Anthropology chapter exam.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- How has art served as an agent of change and culture?
- What were some of the unique features of Assyrian and Sumerian art and architecture?
- How did the historical styles of ancient Egyptian and Persian art evolve over time?
- What are some of the symbols found in early Christian art?
- How did Byzantine mosaic work develop over time?
- What characteristics and styles were unique to Carolingian and Romanesque art?
- How did Gothic painting, sculpture and painting differ from other art?
- Who were some of the major artists of the Renaissance period?
- What characteristics and styles were associated with Baroque painters and sculptors?
1. Art as a Representation of Culture
Why do anthropologists care about art? This lesson examines different approaches to art and how these expressions of culture are passed on from one generation to the next.
2. Assyrian Art and Architecture
This lesson explores the unique characteristics of a fierce and violent culture: the Assyrians. The Assyrians were a warrior culture living in ancient Mesopotamia who used art and architecture to display their power.
3. Ancient Egyptian Art: History and Style
This lesson provides a brief look at the exquisite art of the Ancient Egyptians. Egyptian art contains images of people and deities that represent the culture in which they lived.
4. Ancient Persian Art and Architecture: History & Style
This lesson explores the artwork of one of the most powerful and expansive empires in history: the Persian Empire. Persian artwork contained vivid imagery that recorded the success of the Persian kings in battle and their cultural tendencies.
5. Early Christian Art: History, Characteristics & Symbolism
This lesson covers the development of early Christian art. We begin in the catacombs of Rome, looking at early Christian frescoes. We then move to later sarcophagi. A brief survey of early Christian mosaics follows, and we close with the fine art of illuminated manuscripts.
6. Byzantine Art: Mosaics, History & Characteristics
This lesson covers Byzantine art and explains the difficulties of imposing artistic periods. Justinian is introduced as the man behind the Byzantine Golden Age. We explore the interesting dynamic between Byzantine imperialism and Christian religion. Finally, we take a brief look at eastern religious icons.
7. Carolingian Art: History, Style & Characteristics
This lesson covers the art of the Carolingian Renaissance. We'll explore the causes of the Carolingian Renaissance, then see how the art of illumination was adapted for new uses. Then we'll discuss treasure bindings and finish with a quick survey of the few other surviving forms of Carolingian art.
8. Romanesque Art: History, Characteristics & Style
This lesson covers the explosion of Romanesque art in the 11th century. We briefly explore the causes behind this movement. Then we look at the two most notable forms of Romanesque art: sculptural decoration and stained glass windows. Finally, we examine the emergence of medieval secular art.
9. Gothic Sculpture and Stained Glass Windows: Characteristics & Style
In this lesson, we cover the development of Gothic architectural decoration, specifically decorative sculpture and stained glass windows. You'll learn about Gothic use of stained glass and the evolution of sculpture from Romanesque decoration to Gothic statues.
10. Gothic Painting: Style & Characteristics
This lesson follows the development of two trends in Gothic painting: realism and perspective. We explore the origins of these movements in Italian Gothic masters, like Duccio, Giotto and the Lorenzetti Brothers, and their later expression in Northern European illuminations.
11. Renaissance Art: Artists, Paintings, Sculptures & Architecture
In this lesson, we will be discussing Renaissance art, focusing primarily on paintings, sculptures, and architecture. We will also be learning how humanism affected the art of this time period.
12. Baroque Painting: Style, Characteristics & Artists
This lesson covers the development of Baroque painting as it spread across Europe. We explore the works of Caravaggio in Italy, Velazquez in Spain, Rubens in Belgium, Lorrain in France and Rembrandt in Holland.
13. Baroque Sculpture: Characteristics & Style
In this lesson, we explore the development of Baroque sculpture across Europe, from the creations of the Italian genius, Bernini, to France and the sculptural excellence of Puget's glorified King Louis XIV. We'll also stop in Germany, Spain and Belgium.
14. 2-Dimensional: Definition, Shapes & Art
In this lesson, learn about 2-dimensional shapes as an element of art and learn their basic use and function in art and design. Also, learn to distinguish between geometric shapes and free-form or organic shapes.
15. The Aestheticism Movement
The Aesthetic Movement of the nineteenth century united a wide range of artists, designers, and writers who were critical of the new society produced by Britain's Industrial Revolution. Its proponents were united by a belief that the creation of beauty had its own value.
16. Minoan Art: History & Images
In this lesson, we will explore various types of artwork created by the Minoans. Minoans were early Greeks who created vivid images in their artwork, which became a popular export to surrounding areas.
17. What Is Graffiti? - Definition, History & Types
Modern graffiti art can be traced to the late 1960s in the United States. However, the history of graffiti goes much further back to ancient times. This lesson will explore the history of graffiti from these early beginnings.
18. Impasto: Definition, Techniques, Effect & Artists
In this lesson, we look at the painting technique known as impasto. By applying oil paint to the canvas in thick, dramatic strokes, artists from the Baroque Era onward have created visual drama and a sense of immediacy.
19. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres: Biography & Paintings
In this lesson, learn about French artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1780-1867). Discover how the painter's independent mindset and distinct style reflected in both his works and his life, then test your knowledge with a quiz.
20. John Everett Millais: Biography & Paintings
Sir John Everett Millais was a British artist, most famous for his contribution in establishing the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. This lesson highlights Millais' personal and professional lives, focusing on his realistic art and role within the Brotherhood.
21. M.C. Escher: Biography, Art & Facts
Learn about the life and work of Dutch graphic illustrator M. C. Escher. Explore his designs for impossible architecture, infinity loops, and optical illusions.
22. Marc Chagall: Biography, Paintings & Artwork
Marc Chagall was a Jewish Russian artist who worked during the 20th century and was known for his abstracted, colorful figures and landscapes. In this lesson, you'll examine his life and works and learn how to identify his unique style.
23. Matisse: Biography, Facts & Artwork
Learn about the painter Henri Matisse, an artist known for his use of color and his contribution to the Fauvism movement. Learn about his life and works, and test your knowledge with the supplemental quiz.
24. Monet's Impression, Sunrise: Painting & Analysis
In this lesson, learn more about one of the most notable paintings of France's 19th Century Impressionist Movement, Claude Monet's 'Impression, Sunrise.' After you analyze the painting, take a short quiz about what you learned.
25. Nam June Paik: Biography & Art
Explore the life and work of pioneering video artist Nam June Paik. Learn about his early installation and performance artwork, international collaborations, and influence on contemporary digital and electronic art.
26. Neo-Romanticism: Music & Art
Neo-Romanticism is a call for humanity to connect with nature but in a way that rejects both modern living and pre-industrial tradition and embraces progressive social ideals in art and music.
27. Paul Gauguin, Artist: Biography, Facts & Paintings
Paul Gauguin was a French artist associated with Post-Impressionism and known for his unique use of color, symbolism, and subject matter. In this lesson, you'll learn about what makes him unique, as well as his lasting legacy in the art world.
28. Peter Paul Rubens: Biography, Paintings & Style
This text lesson discusses the life and career of the prolific Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). We will also explore his style by looking at a couple of his most famous paintings.
29. Picasso's Girl Before a Mirror: Meaning & Analysis
This lesson is about Pablo Picasso's art piece titled ''Girl before a Mirror''. Here, we will look at the meaning and style of the Cubist painting, and analyze the the possible interpretations of the painting.
30. Picasso's Guernica: Definition, Symbolism & Analysis
In Picasso's most famous political piece, 'Guernica' depicts the death of innocent civilians, the agony of wounded animals, and the fog of war with none of its glories. Read more about this painting and then take a short quiz.
31. Picasso's Three Musicians: Painting & Analysis
Picasso's ''Three Musicians'' is a famous painting, but do you know what style it represents? And did you know that there is more than one painting by this title? Get all the facts in this lesson!
32. Piet Mondrian: Biography, Paintings & Art
Explore the art, style, and influence of Dutch painter Piet Mondrian. Learn about his approach to Abstract Expressionism and Cubism, connections with other Modern artists, and impact on minimalist art and architecture.
33. Pointillism: Definition, History & Artists
Pointillism is an artistic technique that uses tiny dots of color to create a depth of light. A number of artists in the 19th century experimented with the depths of imagery possible with this new method.
34. Positive & Negative Space in Art: Definition & Examples
Learn about how positive and negative space direct the viewer's eye to create optical illusions. Investigate the many aspects of pictorial representation that inform the rules of visual composition.
35. Post Impressionist Movement: Style & Famous Artists
In this lesson, we'll be taking a look at the Post Impressionist Movement of art. We'll look at its distinctive, almost abstract style and the noteworthy names associated with it. When you're finished, you can test your knowledge with a quiz!
36. Post Modernism Art: Definition, Theory & Characteristics
Postmodernism is the umbrella term under which diverse artistic movements sought to critique the modern project's attempt to understand the outside world in a methodological fashion.
37. Rembrandt: Biography, Paintings & Etchings
Known for his compelling mastery of shadow and light in his art, Rembrandt is among the most famous portrait artists in history. Learn about his life, his paintings, and photography and then test your knowledge with a quiz.
38. Robert Rauschenberg: Biography, Paintings & Works
Have you ever wanted to forge your own creative path? In this lesson, learn about American artist Robert Rauschenberg, who did just that. He explored new ways and methods to make art, using everything from stuffed goats to NASA space imagery.
39. Rococo Art: Definition, Style & Artists
In this lesson, you will learn what Rococo art is and how to identify it based on its stylistic characteristics. To bring the concept of Rococo to life, we will look at a few well-known paintings by famous Rococo artists.
40. Rule of Thirds in Photography: Definition & Examples
Want to make those pictures from a smartphone look better even without extra filters? Then learn more about the rule of thirds, a guideline that has been helping artists and photographers for more than 200 years.
41. Salvador Dali: Biography, Paintings & Facts
This lesson muses on the life and times of the Surrealist artist, Salvador Dali. Let's explore his life, his creations, and fun facts along with his inspirations.
42. Symmetrical Balance in Art: Definition & Examples
In this lesson we will discuss symmetrical balance and how it is represented in art, architecture, and other imagery. Visual aids are included to help illustrate the this commonly used device.
43. The Art Movement Suprematism: Definition & Artists
In this lesson, learn about Suprematism, a Russian art movement, developed by painter Kasimir Malevich in 1915. You'll understand this different type of art, one that didn't rely on images or narrative and then you'll test your knowledge with a quiz!
44. The Golden Section: Definition, Art & Method
Explore the aesthetic foundations of the golden section represented in classical and modern art. Learn about artists who use the golden section to recreate beauty and composition found in nature.
45. Thomas Gainsborough: Biography & Paintings
This lesson looks at the work of Thomas Gainsborough, a leading English painter of the eighteenth century. Gainsborough found success as a portrait painter, depicting a world of aristocrats, merchants, and landowners aware of their country's increasing wealth and power. At the same time, Gainsborough's love of landscape painting made him a forerunner of the Romantic movement.
46. Mannerist Art: Definition, Characteristics & Examples
In this lesson, we'll look at the style of art known as Mannerism.The work of the Mannerists was dismissed for centuries as decadent, or simply weird. Only in the 20th century did it come to be widely admired.
47. Photo Essay Topics
As digital photography becomes more accessible, photo essays are a growing field of artistic journalism. In this lesson, we'll explore the concept of the photo essay and talk about picking the right topic.
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- Genetics for Anthropologists: Help and Review
- Evolution for Anthropologists: Help and Review
- DNA Mutations: Help and Review
- Physical Anthropology: Help and Review
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- People and the Environment: Help and Review
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- Ethnicity and Geography
- Studying Land Resources in Anthropology: Help and Review
- The Nature of Culture: Help and Review
- Language and Communication in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Spatial Processes
- Settlement Patterns in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Societies in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Economic Systems in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Family Relationships in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Political Organization in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Religion in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Applications of Anthropology: Help and Review