About This Chapter
Basics of DNA & RNA - Chapter Summary
This chapter provides overviews of DNA and RNA structures and the role each plays in molecular biology. You'll study general terms relating to nucleic acids and compare DNA and RNA. These brief lessons contain illustrations and examples that enhance your learning experience. After you have completed your review of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
- Detail the chemical structure of nucleic acids, particularly DNA
- Identify the four nitrogenous bases of DNA
- Detail the double helix structure of DNA
- Explain the differences between DNA and RNA
- List the types of RNA
- Provide details about the role and function of tRNA
This complex material is broken down into simple language and illustrations by our experienced instructors to ensure your understanding of these topics. Lessons are accessible 24/7 on any device, making it easy for you to study at your convenience. Measure the depth of your knowledge with self-assessment quizzes, and monitor your progress through this chapter on your Dashboard.
1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
3. DNA: Discovery, Facts, Structure & Function in Heredity
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
5. tRNA: Role, Function & Synthesis
This lesson focuses on transfer RNA (tRNA). It covers what tRNA is, what it does in our cells, and how it is made. It also gives a brief description of the history and discovery of tRNA.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the SAT Subject Test Biology: Practice and Study Guide course
- Scientific Principles
- Review of Inorganic Chemistry For Biologists
- Introduction to Organic Chemistry
- How Enzymes Work
- Cell Biology
- Process of DNA Replication
- The Transcription and Translation Process
- Basics of Gene Mutations
- Basics of Metabolic Biochemistry
- Overview of Cell Division
- Plant Biology
- Plant Reproduction and Growth
- Physiology I: The Circulatory, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Musculoskeletal Systems
- Physiology II: The Nervous, Immune, and Endocrine Systems
- Animal Reproduction and Development
- Biology of Genetics
- Basics of Human Genetics
- Principles of Ecology
- Biological Evolution & Natural Selection
- The Origin and History of Life On Earth
- Organism Classification & Phylogenesis
- Social Biology
- Analyzing Scientific Data
- SAT Biology Flashcards