About This Chapter
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Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the anatomy of the heart or the cardiovascular system
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
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- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about the cardiovascular system
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Cardiovascular System chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Cardiovascular System chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any cardiovascular system question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- What are the parts and functions of the human circulatory system?
- What are the anatomical structures of the heart?
- What are the phases of the cardiac cycle?
- How is the contraction of the heart coordinated?
- What are the wave types measured by an electrocardiogram (ECG)?
- What are the different types of arrhythmia and how can an ECG detect them?
- What are the different heart conditions and diseases?
- How are heart rate and stroke volume regulated?
- How are blood flow and blood pressure regulated?
- What are the functions of the lymphatic system?
- What are the functions of red blood cells and hemoglobin?
- What are the different blood types?
- What is an Rh factor?
- What are the types and causes of anemia?
- What are the mechanics behind blood coagulation and wound healing?
1. The Human Circulatory System: Parts and Functions
In this lesson, you will take a ride on the transportation system of the body called the circulatory system and its two parts: the pulmonary circuit and the systemic circuit. Take a look inside and see how every inch of your body receives the oxygen and nutrients it needs.
2. Anatomy of the Heart: Blood Flow and Parts
In this lesson, you will take a look inside the heart and identify the chambers and one-way valves that make up this vital organ. You will also follow along as we trace the flow of blood through the heart chambers.
3. The Cardiac Cycle: Phases, Explanation & Terms
In this lesson, you will learn what happens during each heartbeat, or cardiac cycle. You will also learn that the heartbeat involves periods of relaxation and contraction, known as diastole and systole, respectively.
4. Heartbeat and Heart Contraction Coordination
In this lesson you will learn about your heart's very own regulatory system, the intrinsic conduction system, and how it sets the pace for a normal, healthy heartbeat. You will discover that your heart moves to its own beat thanks to the natural pacemaker of the heart called the SA node.
5. Electrocardiogram (ECG): Definition & Wave Types
Do you know how problems in the heart are detected? In this lesson, you will learn how to read an electrocardiogram (ECG) and discover what is happening in the heart during the P, QRS, and T waves.
6. Arrhythmia of the Heart: Terms, Definition & ECG Detection
An electrocardiogram, or ECG, can be used to detect irregular heartbeats or arrhythmias. In this lesson, you will learn about arrhythmias detected by ECG, including bradycardia, tachycardia, fibrillation, and heart block.
7. Types of Heart Conditions and Diseases
Your heart muscle receives a rich blood supply from the coronary arteries. If the coronary arteries become blocked, it can result in coronary heart disease, angina, heart attack or congestive heart failure. Learn how these conditions get started.
8. Heart Rate, Cardiac Output & Stroke Volume
The amount of blood your heart pumps is constantly changing to meet the needs of your body. In this lesson, you will learn how the heart maintains an adequate cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume.
9. Regulation of Heart Rate and Stroke Volume
The amount of blood being pumped through your body changes constantly due to the demands of daily life. In this lesson, you will learn how your body adjusts the heart rate and stroke volume to increase or decrease blood flow.
10. Total Peripheral Resistance & Blood Flow Regulation
Blood flows continually through your heart and blood vessels. As the needs of the body change, blood flow needs to increase or decrease. Learn how vasodilation, vasoconstriction and other factors change the amount of resistance within your blood vessels to change blood flow through your body.
11. Regulation of Blood Pressure: Short Term Regulation & Baroreceptors
Blood pressure in your blood vessels is closely monitored by baroreceptors; they send messages to the cardio regulatory center of your medulla oblongata to regulate your blood pressure minute-by-minute. In this lesson, you will learn how baroreceptors regulate your short-term blood pressure.
12. Functions of the Lymphatic System
In this lesson, you will learn about the lymphatic system and the vital role it plays in keeping the cardiovascular system working. You'll discover how the lymphatic system (with its lymphatic vessels and capillaries) quietly works in the background to return leaked fluids back to the blood.
13. Circulatory System IV: Red Blood Cells
Why don't mature red blood cells have nuclei or mitochondria, and how do these guys squeeze through capillaries? While learning about the brief but glorious lives of red blood cells, you'll also see which characteristics help them transport oxygen and carbon dioxide to other cells.
14. Circulatory System V: Hemoglobin
Did you ever wonder how red blood cells can store enough oxygen to supply the entire human body? Join us in this lesson on hemoglobin to learn why red blood cells are so good at transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide. This lesson will make you see red (as well as blue and purple-maroon)!
15. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
You are either blood type A, B, AB or O. But, did you know that your blood type is determined by microscopic antigens found on your red blood cells? In this lesson, you will learn about the different blood groups and why they do not mix.
16. Rh Blood Group, Rh Factor & Erythroblastosis Fetalis
Rh factor is a red blood cell antigen found in most people. Those with Rh factor are Rh positive, while those without are Rh negative. In this lesson you will learn about Rh blood compatibility and its importance during pregnancy.
17. Anemia: Types and Causes
Your red blood cells have a unique design that differentiates them from all other cells. This unique design makes them exceptional oxygen carriers. But if this ability to carry oxygen is compromised, the result is a form of anemia, such as pernicious anemia, aplastic anemia or sickle cell anemia.
18. Blood Coagulation and Wound Healing
When your blood vessels suffer damage, your body follows a sequence of events to promote blood clotting. In this lesson, you will learn about coagulation cascade and important clotting factors involved in wound healing.
19. The Three Layers of the Heart Wall
In this lesson, you will learn about the three layers of the heart: the epicardium, myocardium, and the endocardium. Explore how they function to create the amazing pumping machine that is your heart.
20. Effective Refractory Period: Ventricular & Atrial
In this lesson, we will discuss how the heart begins beating -- the action potential. Then we will narrow in and focus on the effective refractory period. We will also cover what happens when the effective refractory period is altered, and how to treat it.
21. Automated External Defibrillator: Definition & Use
An automated external defibrillator (AED) is used in medical emergencies where someone's heart stops beating. Read this lesson to learn what scenarios may warrant its use and how an AED works. AEDs save lives!
22. Baroreceptors: Definition, Function & Location
What is a baroreceptor? Review the importance of maintaining and accurately adjusting blood pressure. Learn the purpose of baroreceptors in the function of the body, how they work and where in the body they are located.
23. High Blood Pressure: Symptoms, Causes & Remedies
High blood pressure is a common, but serious medical condition. If untreated, it can cause heart disease, heart failure, atherosclerosis, kidney failure, or stroke. Regular measurements and lifestyle changes can help most people manage their blood pressure.
24. Lymph Nodes: Anatomy & Location
This lesson will help you understand the anatomy and function of lymph nodes, and you will learn where lymph nodes are located in your body. A quiz at the end of the lesson will test your knowledge.
25. Lymphatic Capillaries: Function & Explanation
In this lesson you will learn what lymphatic capillaries are. You will also learn why they are important for removing excess fluid from your tissues and how they fit into your lymphatic system.
26. Systole: Definition & Measurement
This lesson defines what the term systole means and how it occurs in the body. We will take a brief look at the function of the heart in order to fully understand what is happening during systole. After reading the lesson, there is a short quiz to check your knowledge.
27. Vascular Cylinder: Definition & Concept
Just as your veins move important substances through your body, plant vascular tissue does the same for plants. Here we'll learn about the vascular cylinders in plants, their structure, and how they work, and we'll finish with a brief quiz.
28. Ventricle: Function & Anatomy
In this lesson, we'll discuss the chambers of the heart that really drive blood flow - the ventricles. Where are they? What do they do? And what happens when something goes wrong with them?
29. AICD (Medical Abbreviation): Definition, Indications & Placement
This lesson will describe what an AICD is and how it can be helpful for patients at-risk of cardiac events. Additionally, this lesson will detail the insertion of the AICD within the chest.
30. Anasarca: Definition, Causes & Treatment
Anasarca is the medical term for a condition that causes generalized swelling of the body. Check out this lesson to learn more about anasarca, its causes, and how to treat it when it occurs.
31. Angina Pectoris: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Angina pectoris is characterized by chest pain - it can be very alarming the first time someone experiences it. Read this lesson to learn what causes angina, what the symptoms are, and how it is treated.
32. Asystole: Definition, Causes & Treatment
This lesson will explain the definition, causes, and treatment of the cardiac rhythm called asystole. After reading this lesson, you will be able to comprehend why asystole is a true emergency.
33. Cardiac Output: Definition, Formula, Calculation & Normal Range
Medical professionals need to be able to quantify how efficient your heart works, which involves understanding cardiac output. This lesson will look at what cardiac output is, how it is calculated and why it is important.
34. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG): Definition & Indications
In this lesson, we will define what a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operation is and why it is done. We will also briefly touch on the risk factors.
35. Diaphoresis: Definition, Causes & Treatment
Everybody sweats. Your body sweats to cool you down when you're overheated. But, there's a point when sweating is no longer helpful, but harmful. At that point, it becomes diaphoresis.
36. Digoxin: Definition & Drug Side Effects
In this lesson we will learn about Digoxin, a medication that helps treat certain heart problems. Find out the common side effects that can occur when receiving this medication.
37. Endocardium: Definition & Function
In this lesson, we'll discuss the endocardium of the heart. We'll look at where the endocardium is located, what exactly it is, and the role it plays in the functionality of the heart.
38. Heart Murmur: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
A heart murmur is an abnormal sound due to turbulent blood flow through the heart. Murmurs can be innocent (harmless) or abnormal (potentially harmful). In this lesson we will learn the causes, symptoms, and treatments for murmurs.
39. Myocardium: Definition & Function
Understand the definition of myocardium, and explore its functions and physical makeup. Then, read about some conditions that can affect this unique type of muscle.
40. Pulse Deficit: Definition & Causes
In this lesson we are going to review pulse and then discuss what a pulse deficit is. We will also look at the causes of pulse deficit and examine how they cause the condition to occur.
41. Spironolactone: Uses & Side Effects
Spironolactone is a medication that be used to treat a number of conditions, including high blood pressure, heart failure, and low potassium. This lesson discusses the common uses and side effects of spironolactone.
42. What Is a Heart Attack? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
After reading through this lesson you will be able to define what a heart attack is. You willl learn the signs and symptoms as well as underlying cause of a heart attack. You will have an understanding of the treatment involved to treat a heart attack.
43. What Is Angina? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Angina is the term used to describe chest pains caused from too little blood reaching the heart. Read this lesson to learn why this happens, what the other symptoms are, and how it is treated once diagnosed.
44. What Is Atenolol? - Uses & Side Effects
Atenolol is an old-school, beta blocker medication that is still in use today. Discover the most useful applications and potential side effects of atenolol through this lesson.
45. What Is Cardiomegaly? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
Cardiomegaly occurs when the heart is larger than normal due to some underlying condition. Read this lesson to learn about the causes, symptoms, and treatment options for cardiomegaly.
46. What Is Clonidine? - Uses & Side Effects
With all of the different medications on the market today, it's hard to keep track of what they all do. Read this lesson to learn about clonidine, a medication that affects blood pressure, as well as its other uses and side effects.
47. What Is CPR? - Definition, History & Purpose
This lesson will provide you with information regarding a fascinating lifesaving technique called CPR that is used to revive an individual from death. Learn the definition of CPR and explore its history and purpose.
48. What Is Dobutamine? - Uses & Side Effects
Dobutamine is a drug used to treat heart failure. Read this lesson to learn how it works, which scenarios it would be used in, and what the possible side effects might be.
49. What Is Dysrhythmia? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
What is a dysrhythmia vs. an arrhythmia? What are the signs and symptoms of cardiac dysrhythmias? How can we treat the various types? This lesson answers all of these questions.
50. What Is Edema? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
Have you ever had a tooth pulled and your jaw swelled afterward? Or sprained your ankle and it swelled up? That's edema, a common response by the body to injury or inflammation. Discover more about edema.
51. What Is HDL Cholesterol? - Definition & Healthy Levels
In this lesson we'll explain what HDL cholesterol is and how it affects the body. We'll also look at the healthy range for HDL and the factors that can increase HDL levels.
52. What Is Hypertension (HTN)? - Definition, Symptoms & Causes
It is likely that high blood pressure, or hypertension, has affected you or someone close to you. In this lesson, we will define hypertension and get a better understanding of its causes and symptoms.
53. What Is Hypotension? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Hypotension is low blood pressure - a condition we hear a lot less about compared to high blood pressure. Learn what causes blood pressure to drop, what the symptoms are, and what kinds of treatment options exist for this condition.
54. What Is Nitroglycerin? - Definition, Uses & Side Effects
Follow a man who is having a heart attack. See how the healthcare providers use nitroglycerin in a variety of forms to help him during the acute (emergent) situation and long term. Learn as the nurses monitor him for desired effects and side effects of this powerful drug.
55. What Is Orthostatic Hypotension? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
Have you ever gotten a bit lightheaded when getting up quickly from a lying position? Don't worry, most likely, it was both harmless and common. This lesson will define such an experience as orthostatic hypotension; we will explore the definition, causes, and treatment of such bouts of lowered blood pressure.
56. What Is Perfusion? - Definition & Treatment
In this lesson, we'll define perfusion. We'll also go over how perfusion occurs and what can interfere with it. Then, we'll discuss steps that can be taken if perfusion is interrupted.
57. What Is Propranolol? - Uses, Side Effects & Withdrawal
Propranolol is a medication classified as a beta-blocker, and it's used to reduce blood pressure and strain on the heart. Read this lesson to learn what conditions it's used to treat, possible side effects, and withdrawal symptoms.
58. What Is Wound Dehiscence? - Definition & Treatment
While surgery most often leads to the resolution of a serious health problem, sometimes a surgical incision can dehisce and cause complications. Keep reading to learn what wound dehiscence is and how it occurs, as well as how it can be treated.
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Other chapters within the Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review course
- Inorganic Chemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Organic Molecules in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Biochemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Basic Anatomy and Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Blood Vessels: Help and Review
- Digestive System: Help and Review
- Urinary System: Help and Review
- Endocrine System: Help and Review
- The Brain: Help and Review
- The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review
- The Five Senses: Help and Review
- Muscular System: Help and Review
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System: Help and Review
- Connective Tissue: Help and Review
- Skeletal System: Help and Review
- Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review
- Early Development to Childbirth: Help and Review