About This Chapter
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure - Chapter Summary
At the beginning of this chapter, the instructor will explain the Octet Rule and provide you with an overview of Lewis or electron dot structures, diagrams that are used to illustrate how atoms in a molecule bond together. You'll learn about the different types of Lewis structures, including single, double and triple bonds, as well as the resonance structures of polyatomic ions.
The instructor will also discuss ionic compounds, including how they are formed, their properties and how lattice energy is used to measure the strength of their bonds. You can also learn about the different types of ionic compounds, such as polyatomic ions, simple binaries and transition metals. In one of the most interesting parts of the lesson, you'll discover why metals make good electrical conductors.
This chapter on chemical bonding and molecular structures also includes information about:
- The formation, naming and properties of covalent compounds
- How to predict bond polarity and the ionic character of covalent bonds
- Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory and Dipole moments
- Strong intermolecular forces, such as hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, and ion-dipole
- Weak intermolecular forces, like London dispersion or Van Der Waals forces
- The use of orbital hybridization and valence bond theories to forecast molecular shapes
- Metallic bonding and the electron sea model
- Intramolecular bonding, including organic and inorganic macromolecules
These short video lessons are designed to provide you with an easy-to-understand overview of chemical bonding and molecular structures. Along with the video, you'll have access to a lesson transcript, where key terms and points are linked to text lessons and additional information. Through the use of video tags, you'll also have the opportunity to revisit important parts of the presentation - without having to re-watch the whole tutorial. Additional features include online self-assessment quizzes and the chance to test your own knowledge of chemistry.
1. The Octet Rule and Lewis Structures of Atoms
Learn the octet rule and how it applies to electron energy levels. Identify valence electrons and learn how to determine them by looking at the periodic table. Also, discover how they pertain to the octet rule. Learn how to draw the Lewis diagram of an atom, and understand how it provides clues to chemical bonding.
2. Ionic Compounds: Formation, Lattice Energy and Properties
In this lesson, you'll learn about ionic compounds and how they form. Additionally, you'll learn the properties of ionic compounds, such as their high melting and boiling points, their ability to conduct electricity, and the fact that they form crystals.
3. Naming Ionic Compounds: Simple Binary, Transition Metal & Polyatomic Ion Compounds
An important part of dealing with chemical compounds is knowing how to refer to them. Learn how to name all ionic compounds, including simple binary compounds, compounds containing transition metals and compounds containing polyatomic ions.
4. Covalent Compounds: Properties, Naming & Formation
Learn about covalent bonds, how covalent compounds are formed and the properties inherent to covalent compounds, such as low melting and boiling points, in this lesson. Also, learn what rules to follow to name simple covalent compounds.
5. Lewis Structures: Single, Double & Triple Bonds
Review what a Lewis dot diagram is and discover how to draw a Lewis dot structural formula for compounds. Learn how to represent single, double and triple bonds with lines instead of dots. Also, learn how compounds arrange themselves.
6. Lewis Dot Structures: Polyatomic Ions
This lesson defines Lewis dot structures and explains how to draw them for molecules in step-by-step detail. We'll also explore polyatomic ions and how to draw Lewis dot structures for them.
7. Lewis Dot Structures: Resonance
In this lesson, we'll review Lewis dot structures and how to draw them. Then, learn about resonance and resonance structures for molecules and polyatomic ions. Afterwards, assess your new knowledge with a quiz.
8. Covalent Bonds: Predicting Bond Polarity and Ionic Character
Learn about covalent bonds and their two types: nonpolar covalent bonds and polar covalent bonds. Discover how to predict the type of bond that will form based on the periodic table. Learn what ionic character means and how to determine it.
9. VSEPR Theory & Molecule Shapes
In this lesson, you'll learn about the VSEPR theory and how it can be used to explain molecule shapes. Then, learn how to predict the shape of a molecule by applying the VSEPR theory to the Lewis dot structure.
10. Hydrogen Bonding, Dipole-Dipole & Ion-Dipole Forces: Strong Intermolecular Forces
Learn about intermolecular vs. intramolecular forces. Learn the different intermolecular bonds (including hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and ion-dipole forces), their strengths, and their effects on properties, such as boiling and melting points, solubility, and evaporation.
11. London Dispersion Forces (Van Der Waals Forces): Weak Intermolecular Forces
Learn how London dispersion forces are created and what effect they have on properties such as boiling and melting points. Discover this weak intermolecular force and how it is one of the Van der Waals forces.
12. Using Orbital Hybridization and Valence Bond Theory to Predict Molecular Shape
You'll learn how to explain how shapes of molecules can be predicted using valence bond theory and hybridization. When finished, you'll understand the difference between sigma and pi bonds and how the VSEPR theory, along with the hybridization theory, helps predict the shape of a molecule.
13. Metallic Bonding: The Electron-Sea Model & Why Metals Are Good Electrical Conductors
Learn why metallic bonding is called the electron sea model. Discover why metals bond the way they do and why they are shiny, malleable and conduct electricity well.
14. Intramolecular Bonding and Identification of Organic and Inorganic Macromolecules
Understand what a macromolecule is and be able to identify both organic and inorganic macromolecules. Organic molecules include proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleic acids.
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