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Ch 11: Momentum, Energy, Pressure, Temperature & Gas

About This Chapter

Watch online science video lessons to learn about kinetic and mechanical energy, orbital momentum and other topics related to the conservation laws of astronomy.

Conservation Laws in Astronomy - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

Now that you've studied Newton's laws of motion, use this chapter to examine the physics behind what actually makes the world go around. Instructors outline different energy types and explain the relationship between momentum and force, so you can develop an understanding of laws governing the behavior of objects in orbit. By the time you reach the end of this chapter, you should be able to do the following:

  • Apply the momentum conservation principle to linear, orbital and rotational motion
  • Differentiate between potential, kinetic, thermal and mechanical energy
  • Describe gravitational potential energy and mass-energy
  • Convert between Kelvin and Celsius temperatures
  • Interpret a phase change diagram

Video Objectives
Linear Momentum: Definition, Equation and Examples Explore the relationship between momentum, mass and velocity. Practice solving the formula used to calculate linear momentum.
Conservation of Linear Momentum: Formula and Examples View real-life applications of the law of conservation of momentum.
Conservation of Orbital and Rotational Angular Momentum Apply conservation principles to orbital and rotational motion.
What is Energy? - Definition and Significance in Nature Learn where energy comes from. Get examples of thermal and mechanical energy.
Kinetic Energy to Potential Energy: Relationship in Different Energy Types Find out how potential energy is converted into the kinetic energy required for work.
What is Mechanical Energy? - Definition & Examples Apply the law of conservation to mechanical energy within a system. Examine the effect of outside forces acting on a system.
What is Thermal Energy? - Definition & Examples Examine the energy type resulting from the movement of particles within an object.
Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvin and Celsius Compare the Kelvin and Celsius temperature scales. Learn how to convert between these two measurements.
Changes in Heat and Energy Diagrams Differentiate between heat and temperature. Explore diagrams demonstrating their relationship during a phase change.
Potential Energy in Astronomy Examine the applications of gravitational potential energy and mass-energy in astronomy.

14 Lessons in Chapter 11: Momentum, Energy, Pressure, Temperature & Gas
Linear Momentum: Definition, Equation, and Examples

1. Linear Momentum: Definition, Equation, and Examples

Any moving object has momentum, but how much momentum it has depends on its mass and velocity. In this lesson, you'll identify linear momentum, as well as see examples of how an object's momentum is affected by mass and velocity.

Conservation of Linear Momentum: Formula and Examples

2. Conservation of Linear Momentum: Formula and Examples

The law of conservation of momentum tells us that the amount of momentum for a system doesn't change. In this lesson, we'll explore how that can be true even when the momenta of the individual components does change.

What is Energy? - Definition and Significance in Nature

3. What is Energy? - Definition and Significance in Nature

This lesson describes the nature of energy and how it is transferred from one source into another. Additionally, it will describe the significance of energy in natural systems.

Kinetic Energy to Potential Energy: Relationship in Different Energy Types

4. Kinetic Energy to Potential Energy: Relationship in Different Energy Types

This video defines and describes kinetic and potential energy. You'll learn how different types of energy can be classified as potential and kinetic. You'll also find out how kinetic and potential energy are transformed.

What is Mechanical Energy? - Definition & Examples

5. What is Mechanical Energy? - Definition & Examples

In physics, energy is how work gets done. This video describes one important type of energy, mechanical energy, and provides examples of both kinetic and potential mechanical energy.

Conservation of Mechanical Energy

6. Conservation of Mechanical Energy

Energy comes in many forms and for any system can never be created or destroyed. This holds true for mechanical energy, which also obeys this law of conservation of energy. In this video lesson, you'll explore how mechanical energy is converted or transferred between forms and objects.

What is Thermal Energy? - Definition & Examples

7. What is Thermal Energy? - Definition & Examples

This lesson defines and identifies examples of thermal energy everywhere from your kitchen to the Earth's core. We'll discuss geothermal energy, a renewable energy source, as well.

Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius

8. Temperature Units: Converting Between Kelvins and Celsius

Have you ever wondered what the lowest possible temperature is? In this lesson, you will learn what temperature measures. You will also be introduced to the Kelvin scale (an absolute scale) and learn how it relates to the Celsius scale.

Changes in Heat and Energy Diagrams

9. Changes in Heat and Energy Diagrams

Did you know that temperature and heat are not the same thing? Did you know that the temperature of water doesn't change when it boils? This lesson describes the relationship between heat and temperature. Diagrams are used to illustrate the relationship between heat and temperature during phase changes.

Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions

10. Pressure: Definition, Units, and Conversions

Have you ever wondered what pressure is and how it gets measured? In this lesson, we are going to define pressure and explain some of the units that are used to express measurements of pressure.

Atmospheric Pressure: Definition & Effects

11. Atmospheric Pressure: Definition & Effects

Atmospheric pressure is around us all of the time. The air you are breathing has weight, and although it doesn't weigh a lot, there is a lot of it around. This lesson will cover atmospheric pressure and its effects.

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures

12. Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Calculating Partial & Total Pressures

In this lesson, you will learn how gases behave when they are mixed together and how to use Dalton's law of partial pressures to calculate partial and total pressures of gases. You will also learn how to use this information to explain how to find the partial pressure of a gas collected over water.

The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant

13. The Ideal Gas Law and the Gas Constant

Have you ever wondered why the pressure in your car's tires is higher after you have been driving a while? In this lesson, we are going to discuss the law that governs ideal gases and is used to predict the behavior of real gases: the ideal gas law.

Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas

14. Using the Ideal Gas Law: Calculate Pressure, Volume, Temperature, or Quantity of a Gas

In another lesson, you learned that the ideal gas law is expressed as PV = nRT. In this video lesson, we'll go one step further, examining how to rearrange the equation to solve for a missing variable when the others are known.

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