About This Chapter
Developmental Psychology in Children and Adolescents - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Our developmental psychology lessons begin with a look at child and adolescent development. Let our lessons take you through the developmental milestones, development rates and the environmental effects on development. Study the concept of nature vs. nurture a little closer and find out why children develop at different rates.
Move into lessons on cognitive development. This series of lessons covers a range of concepts from application of cognitive development theories in the classroom to the effects of cognitive development on interpersonal relationships. Take a look at Piaget and Vygotsky. Learn what they have to say about development and study how their ideas differ. Discover tools to use that can help to advance cognitive development.
Let our lessons introduce you to Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. Study the language development of children and learn about bilingual education. See how bilingualism can be promoted in education. Take a look into moral development. Find out trends and study theories from Gilligan and Kohlberg.
Finally, embark on lessons about gender. Study the differences in gender and how it plays a role in the personal, social and moral development of children. See how gender roles work throughout the stages of development from elementary to high school. Also take a look into the role of nature vs. nurture combined with gender and the effects on development and behavior throughout childhood. Thanks for watching our lessons!
1. Child and Adolescent Development: Developmental Milestones & Nature vs. Nurture
How does a child develop cognitively? Which influences development more - genetics or the environment? How important are early experiences in the growth and cognitive development of a child? These are some of the major questions that guide the work of researchers in the field of educational psychology. This lesson will begin to address these questions by describing the basic principles that characterize child and adolescent development.
2. Using Cognitive Development Psychology in the Classroom
Do you ever feel bombarded with the amount of new information in a class? How do you process new information in order to create usable knowledge? These are the types of questions cognitive psychologists and teachers seek to answer. This lesson will explore and apply the major assumptions of cognitive development and psychology.
3. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development focuses on how learners interact with their environment to develop complex reasoning and knowledge. This lesson will focus on the six basic assumptions of that theory, including the key terms: assimilation, accommodation and equilibration.
4. Assimilation and Accommodation
How do assimilation and accommodation help a child adapt to his environment? You'll explore how established and changing patterns of information drive a child's intellectual growth as he learns about cats and dogs.
5. Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
Jean Piaget developed a theory of cognitive development that described and explained the changes in logical thinking of children and adolescents. Within that theory, he identified four stages of cognitive development through which all learners must proceed. This lesson will introduce you to and differentiate between those stages.
6. Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
The role of culture and social interactions are imperative to cognitive development, according to psychologist, Lev Vygotsky. This lesson will discuss how social interactions play a role in cognitive development of children, provide an overview of Vygotsky's cultural-historical theory and describe the stages of speech and language development.
7. Zone of Proximal Development and Scaffolding in the Classroom
Psychologist Lev Vygotsky developed a theory of cognitive development which focused on the role of culture in the development of higher mental functions. Several concepts arose from that theory that are important to classroom learning. This lesson will focus on two concepts: zone of proximal development and scaffolding.
8. Social Constructivism and the Mediated Learning Experience
A well-accepted fact among educational psychologists is the idea that knowledge is not absorbed but rather constructed through a person's experiences with his or her environment. This knowledge may be constructed individually or collaboratively. This lesson will briefly explain the processes behind knowledge construction and provide information on how socially constructed knowledge can advance the cognitive development of learners.
9. Tools to Advance Cognitive Development
The word 'tool' has a connotation of something that aids us. Normally, we think of tools being something manipulated with our hands to help us build. In this lesson, we will learn about tools designed to promote cognitive development.
10. Differences between Piaget & Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories
Two of the most recognized cognitive psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, developed theories that addressed cognitive development and learning among children and adolescents. While there are similarities between the two theories, differences exist, and those differences are critical to the understanding and application of the theories in educational settings. This lesson will highlight those major differences.
11. Social & Cognitive Development: Impact on Interpersonal Relationships
How does association with a group of people impact behavior and learning? Are friendships relevant to understanding the behavior of students in a classroom? This lesson discusses social development by exploring interpersonal relationship functions and types.
12. Erikson's Stages of Identity Formation
How do we form identities as we age and grow? To answer this question, Erik Erikson came up with eight stages of identity formation that revolve around conflict and resolution. Who are you, and who will you become after completing this lesson?
13. Linguistics: Language Development in Children
How does a baby's babble turn into intelligible speech? Are there underlining innate traits that drive language development in children? Or is it the social interaction with others that encourages language development? This lesson will explore these questions and discuss how aspects of language change over time.
14. Bilingual Education, Immersion & Multicultural Education
Educators use many approaches for second-language instruction. The approaches vary based on the individual needs of the learner, focusing on his or her current language abilities, background, and cultural experiences. This lesson will differentiate between the different types of second-language instruction, including immersion, bilingual education, and multicultural education.
15. Moral & Prosocial Behavior: Definitions & Examples of Classroom Applications
Caring, volunteering, empathizing with others: these are all traits of moral and prosocial behavior. As children age, they develop such moral and prosocial behaviors and traits. This lesson will define these key terms and discuss ways to promote moral and prosocial behavior in the classroom.
16. Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
How do people learn to make morally sound decisions? To illustrate Kohlberg's levels of moral development, we'll follow Lauren as she makes difficult decisions.
17. Carol Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
How does one choose between right and wrong? Are there differences in moral development based on gender? Psychologist Carol Gilligan proposed a theory that highlights the differences between male and female moral development.
18. Gender Differences in the Classroom: Physical, Cognitive & Behavioral
Growing up, did you ever observe gender differences among girls and boys in school? Do you still observe gender differences as an adult? There are established gender differences noted in a variety of contexts. This lesson will explore specific differences in physical and motor skills, cognitive abilities and more.
19. Gender Differences: The Nature Versus Nurture Debate
Are boys better in math and science courses than girls? Are girls better at activities like dance? Gender stereotypes are abundant in society. Are these stereotypes based on real differences or perpetuated opinions? This lesson focuses on gender differences and the influence of nature versus nurture.
20. Bronfenbrenner's Microsystem: Definition & Concept
Urie Bronfenbrenner is a Russian American psychologist who became famous for his ecological systems theory. Learn about Bronfenbrenner's theory, the five environmental systems, and more in this lesson.
21. Client-Centered Therapy by Rogers: Techniques & Definition
Client-centered therapy is one of the major fields of humanistic psychotherapy developed by psychotherapist Carl Rogers. Learn more about client-centered therapy, Carl Rogers, and test your knowledge with a quiz.
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Other chapters within the Psychology 102: Educational Psychology course