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Ch 8: Digestive System: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Digestive System chapter of this Human Anatomy and Physiology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master an understanding of the digestive system. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of the digestive system.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding the digestion and absorption process or the digestive system
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about the digestive system
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Digestive System chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Digestive System chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any digestive system question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:

  • What are the structures and functions of the mouth?
  • What are the structures and functions of the throat and esophagus?
  • How does the autonomic nervous system control the functions of the stomach?
  • What role do gastric juices play in digestion?
  • What are the structures and functions of the small intestine?
  • What are the enzymes produced by the pancreas and what role do they play in digestion?
  • What are the functions of the gallbladder and liver?
  • How does food move through the small intestine?
  • How are nutrients absorbed in the small intestine?
  • What are the structures and functions of the large intestine?
  • How is water absorbed in the large intestine?
  • How are carbohydrates, proteins and lipids digested and absorbed?

75 Lessons in Chapter 8: Digestive System: Help and Review
Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth

1. Anatomy and Physiology of the Mouth

The digestive system is a long tube that breaks food down both mechanically and chemically. In this lesson, you will learn about the mouth and how it begins the digestive process - with the help of the teeth and the enzyme called salivary amylase.

Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus

2. Anatomy of the Throat and Esophagus

After food has been partially broken down in the mouth, it moves through the pharynx, or throat, and the esophagus. In this lesson, you will learn how food is swallowed and how it is propelled by peristalsis through the esophagus.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls

3. Anatomy and Physiology of the Stomach and Autonomic Nervous System Controls

In this lesson, you will learn how the unique anatomy of the stomach - including rugae, gastric pits and gastric glands - makes it a perfect organ for digestion. You will also learn how the autonomic nervous system controls digestion.

Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices

4. Physiology of the Stomach and Gastric Juices

When food enters your stomach, it is mechanically broken down by a process called churning. In this lesson you will learn about this process and the chemical break down of proteins within the stomach by the enzyme pepsin.

What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions

5. What is the Small Intestine? - Anatomy and Functions

In this lesson, you will learn about the three divisions of the small intestine - the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. You will also gain an understanding of the basic functions of each of these sections, including their role in removing bacteria.

What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion

6. What Is the Pancreas? - Function, Enzymes & Role in Digestion

Your pancreas plays an important role in the digestion of food. In this lesson, you will learn about the enzymes found in pancreatic juice that allow your body to break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion

7. The Gallbladder & Liver: Function & Role in Digestion

Bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. In this lesson, you will learn about bile and its role in the breakdown of dietary fats. You will also learn how the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin help regulate these organs.

Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement

8. Movement Through the Small Intestine: Peristalsis, Segmentation & Pendular Movement

The small intestine is an important organ for digestion and absorption of nutrients. In this lesson, you will learn about the enterogastric reflex. You will also learn how intestinal movements, such as peristalsis, segmentation, and pendular movement, improve digestion and absorption.

Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion

9. Small Intestine: Nutrient Absorption and Role In Digestion

The majority of digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn about unique modifications within the walls of the small intestine, such as microvilli, villi, and circular folds. These structures increase absorption of nutrients.

Anatomy and Physiology of the Large Intestine

10. Anatomy and Physiology of the Large Intestine

The large intestine is the made up of the cecum, colon, rectum and anal canal. In this lesson, you will learn about the anatomical features and basic functions of these large intestine segments.

Rectum, Functions of the Large Intestine & Water Absorption

11. Rectum, Functions of the Large Intestine & Water Absorption

The large intestine is the final processing area for digested food. In this lesson, you will learn how the large intestine removes water from undigested food and prepares for the elimination of feces through the anus.

Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates: Definition & Process

12. Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates: Definition & Process

Carbohydrates are an important energy source, but must be broken down to be absorbed out of the digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn how disaccharides and polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides through a process called hydrolysis.

Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption: Process & End Products

13. Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption: Process & End Products

Carbohydrates that you eat are broken down to monosaccharides by enzymes in your digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn about these digestive enzymes and how monosaccharides are absorbed out of the digestive tract.

Protein Digestion and Absorption Process

14. Protein Digestion and Absorption Process

Protein is one of the primary nutrients your body uses to build cellular structures. In this lesson, you will learn how protein is broken down into amino acids within your digestive tract and how amino acids are absorbed out of the intestines and into the hepatic portal system.

Lipids Digestion and Absorption

15. Lipids Digestion and Absorption

Lipids, or fats, are digested and absorbed in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn how bile salts emulsify fat so pancreatic lipase can digest it. You will also learn how fats first enter lymphatic capillaries, called lacteals, before entering your blood circulation.

What is Activated Charcoal? - Uses & Side Effects

16. What is Activated Charcoal? - Uses & Side Effects

Activated charcoal is used in emergency situations where someone has consumed a toxic substance. Read this lesson to learn how activated charcoal works, why it's used, and the possible side effects that may occur.

Saturated Fatty Acid: Structure, Formula & Example

17. Saturated Fatty Acid: Structure, Formula & Example

In animal products, like lamb, pork and poultry, the type of fat that we commonly find here contain saturated fatty acids. In this lesson, we will learn all about saturated fatty acids, and show some examples for them.

Larynx: Anatomy & Explanation

18. Larynx: Anatomy & Explanation

This lesson will outline the basic anatomy of your larynx, a structure in your throat that connects your upper and lower respiratory tracts and allows you to talk and sing. A post-lesson quiz will test your new knowledge.

Evisceration: Definition & Treatment

19. Evisceration: Definition & Treatment

Evisceration is a medical term for organs being outside of the body. Learn more about why this might happen, how to prevent it, and how to properly treat it.

Fruit: Definition, Types, Benefits & Examples

20. Fruit: Definition, Types, Benefits & Examples

In this lesson, you will learn about what properties make a fruit a fruit and its many types and varieties. You will also learn about the possible health benefits of including fruit in your daily diet.

Hyperkalemia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

21. Hyperkalemia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Potassium plays a critical role in many systems of the human body. In this lesson, you will learn the causes and consequences of having too much potassium in your body.

Hypermagnesemia: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

22. Hypermagnesemia: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Magnesium is a mineral that you just don't hear much about, but it is vital to our health. In this lesson, you will learn about the roles of magnesium in our body as well as the causes and consequences of having too much magnesium.

Hypernatremia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

23. Hypernatremia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Have you ever wondered why you're told to drink plenty of water and and not to eat too much salt? In this lesson, you will learn the causes and consequences of having too much salt in your body.

Hyperphosphatemia - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

24. Hyperphosphatemia - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

The body needs phosphates to function, but with hyperphosphatemia, the levels are elevated beyond what the body requires. Read this lesson to learn about the causes, symptoms, and treatment for this condition.

Hypomagnesemia: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

25. Hypomagnesemia: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

We don't usually think about how important magnesium is to our health, but when it's in short supply, we certainly feel the consequences. In this lesson, you will learn about the role of magnesium in our body, as well as the causes and costs of not having enough magnesium.

Intussusception: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

26. Intussusception: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

This lesson introduces you to the anatomy of your intestines and provides information regarding what an intussusception is, what causes it, what the signs and symptoms are and what can be done to treat it.

Odynophagia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

27. Odynophagia: Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Odynophagia is the fancy medical term for painful swallowing. Read this lesson to learn about the symptoms that occur, some of the many possible causes, and how each of these are treated.

Paralytic Ileus: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

28. Paralytic Ileus: Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

After completing this lesson, you will be able to define paralytic ileus and describe its causes, symptoms and treatment. A short quiz follows this lesson to help you test your knowledge.

Pica Disorder: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

29. Pica Disorder: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Do food cravings lead you to eat the nutrients you need? This lesson takes a look at pica disorder, a condition where cravings can be downright dangerous. Learn more about commonly craved items, symptoms, possible causes, and treatment for this unusual disorder.

Pyrosis (Heartburn): Definition & Symptoms

30. Pyrosis (Heartburn): Definition & Symptoms

Pyrosis is the medical term for heartburn. Although it has nothing to do with the heart, people with pyrosis say they feel a burning sensation primarily in the chest after eating. Learn more about it in this lesson.

Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Symptoms & Treatment

31. Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction: Symptoms & Treatment

When sphincter of Oddi fails to function properly, the condition is called sphincter of Oddi dysfunction; read this lesson to learn about the sphincter of Oddi and the symptoms and treatment options for its dysfunction.

What Are Empty Calories? - Definition & Foods

32. What Are Empty Calories? - Definition & Foods

In this lesson, you will learn about empty calories and the type of foods that are included in this food category. In addition, you will learn about the recommended daily intake of such foods.

What Are Hemorrhoids? - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

33. What Are Hemorrhoids? - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

What is a hemorrhoid? How does it develop? Read this lesson to learn about what a hemorrhoid is, what the symptoms are, what causes them, and how to treat them if they rear their ugly heads!

What Are Laxatives? - Definition, Types & Side Effects

34. What Are Laxatives? - Definition, Types & Side Effects

In this lesson, you will learn what laxatives are and will explore the different types of laxatives. You'll also discover the potential side effects of this family of medication, then you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.

What Are Nitrates? - Definition, Foods & Side Effects

35. What Are Nitrates? - Definition, Foods & Side Effects

Nitrates are inorganic compounds that can be found in nature and in several foods we eat. In this lesson, we'll learn more about what nitrates are, what foods contain them and what side effects might occur if we consume too many of them.

What Are Phytochemicals? - Definition, Foods, Benefits & Examples

36. What Are Phytochemicals? - Definition, Foods, Benefits & Examples

We have been told for years to eat our fruits and vegetables. One reason is that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables positively impact health. The following overview will cover the benefits of phytochemicals and some examples of foods containing phytochemicals, followed by a brief quiz.

What Is a Barium Enema? - Preparation, Procedure & Side Effects

37. What Is a Barium Enema? - Preparation, Procedure & Side Effects

Barium enemas are used to diagnose problems in the large intestine or colon. In this lesson, you will learn how a barium enema is done, the preparation techniques and potential side effects, then test your knowledge with a quiz.

What Is a Bowel Obstruction? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

38. What Is a Bowel Obstruction? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

After completing this lesson, you will be able to describe what a bowel obstruction is, as well as the causes, symptoms and treatment of the condition. A short quiz follows the lesson.

What is a Feeding Tube? - Types & Complications

39. What is a Feeding Tube? - Types & Complications

In this lesson, you will learn about the function of feeding tubes. You will also become familiar with various types of tubes and how they are inserted, as well as identify the potential complications that could arise from having this device.

What Is a Fissure? - Definition, Signs, Symptoms & Treatment

40. What Is a Fissure? - Definition, Signs, Symptoms & Treatment

A fissure is a crack or tear in the skin. It is a common condition that can be easily treated if caught early. This lesson discusses what a fissure is, signs and symptoms of fissures, and treatment options.

What is a Proton Pump Inhibitor? - Examples & Side Effects

41. What is a Proton Pump Inhibitor? - Examples & Side Effects

From this lesson you will learn about how proton pump inhibitors are types of medications that treat certain gastrointestinal problems, including some examples and major side effects.

What is Abdominal Distention? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

42. What is Abdominal Distention? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Abdominal distention is caused by a buildup of fluids or gas in the abdominal section of the body. Complete this lesson to find out more about the many conditions that can cause distention, what the symptoms are, and how they're treated.

What is Acute Gastritis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

43. What is Acute Gastritis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Everyone has experienced uncomfortable stomach cramping and pain, but have you ever wondered what causes that pain? In this lesson, you will learn about acute gastritis, including its causes, symptoms and treatment.

What Is an Enema? - Definition, Types, Uses & Side Effects

44. What Is an Enema? - Definition, Types, Uses & Side Effects

In this lesson, you will learn about an enema, a device used in medical procedures where liquid is introduced into the large intestine through the rectum for the purposes of removing stool or performing a diagnostic procedure.

What Is Ascites? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

45. What Is Ascites? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ascites is a condition where fluid builds up in the abdomen, and it is considered a serious disease. Complete this lesson to find out more about it, what causes it, the symptoms, and the possible treatment options.

What is Bariatric Surgery? - Definition, Types, Requirements & Risks

46. What is Bariatric Surgery? - Definition, Types, Requirements & Risks

Bariatric surgery is a medical term used for the various surgical procedures used to promote weight loss. In this lesson, we will explore what bariatric surgery is, the requirements to qualify for bariatric surgery, the different types of bariatric surgery and the risks associated with this type of surgery.

What Is Binge Drinking? - Definition, Facts & Effects

47. What Is Binge Drinking? - Definition, Facts & Effects

Binge drinking is a behavior that, while often socially acceptable, has significant short-term and long-term consequences. This overview will cover a variety of facts about binge drinking and the effects it has on people and society. A brief quiz will follow to test your understanding of this subject.

What is Chronic Gastritis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

48. What is Chronic Gastritis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Chronic gastritis is a condition in which the stomach lining becomes irritated or inflamed - as you can imagine, it can be very painful. Read this lesson to learn why this happens, what the symptoms are, and what treatment options are available.

What Is Diverticulosis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

49. What Is Diverticulosis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

In this lesson, we'll learn about diverticulosis, a disease in which abnormalities in the intestinal wall, called pouches, can trap food particles. Examine the symptoms and treatment options for diverticulosis below.

What Is Dumping Syndrome? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

50. What Is Dumping Syndrome? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

What a peculiar name - dumping syndrome! What is dumping syndrome? Read this lesson to find out what it is, what causes it, what the symptoms are, and how it can be treated!

What Is Dyspepsia? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

51. What Is Dyspepsia? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

In this lesson, we'll learn what causes dyspepsia, also known as indigestion. We'll also explore what the typical symptoms are and examine what treatment options are available.

What Is Dysphagia? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

52. What Is Dysphagia? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

In the following lesson you will learn about dysphagia and who is at a risk for developing it. After reading this lesson, you should have a better understanding of why dysphagia can be dangerous to your health and how it can be treated.

What Is Emesis? - Definition, Meaning & Significance

53. What Is Emesis? - Definition, Meaning & Significance

Have you ever been nauseated and had your stomach contents expelled out of your mouth? In this lesson, we will learn about the meaning and significance of emesis.

What Is Encopresis? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

54. What Is Encopresis? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to describe the meaning of encopresis, identify causes of encopresis, and understand ways to treat and prevent encopresis.

What Is Endoscopy? - Definition, Procedure & Complications

55. What Is Endoscopy? - Definition, Procedure & Complications

After completing this lesson, you will be able to explain what an endoscopy is, describe the procedure and list the possible complications. A short quiz follows the lesson.

What Is Eructation? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

56. What Is Eructation? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

You may find it a bit embarrassing, or you may not care, but eructation happens to all of us. The many reasons for why it occurs, and the varying treatments for it, are outlined in this lesson.

What Is Esomeprazole? - Uses & Side Effects

57. What Is Esomeprazole? - Uses & Side Effects

There are so many prescription drugs on the market today, it's hard to keep up with what they each do. Esomeprazole is a medication that treats heartburn and acid reflux disease. Read more to learn about its exact uses and possible side effects.

What Is Folate? - Foods, Benefits & Deficiency Symptoms

58. What Is Folate? - Foods, Benefits & Deficiency Symptoms

Folate is an essential vitamin, particularly for pregnant women in the prevention of birth defects. It has several other important roles in the human body as well. Why is this so, and what can you do to improve your health?

What Is Gastritis? - Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

59. What Is Gastritis? - Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

In this lesson we will discuss gastritis, a condition which effects the stomach lining and its various causes and symptoms. You will also learn about the diagnosis and effective treatments for this commonly occurring condition.

What Is GERD? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

60. What Is GERD? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a medical condition that effects the esophagus. When stomach contents travel back into the esophagus it can produce a burning sensation in the chest.

What is Hepatitis? - Definition, Types, Symptoms & Treatment

61. What is Hepatitis? - Definition, Types, Symptoms & Treatment

Hepatitis refers to inflammation of the liver. This lesson will review each of the five different types of hepatitis. Also, we will review the symptoms of someone suffering from hepatitis as well as the treatment for this disease.

What is Hypercalcemia? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

62. What is Hypercalcemia? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

You may have been warned about not getting enough calcium, but what happens when there is too much calcium in your blood? This is a condition called hypercalcemia, and it can be harmful to your body. Read this lesson to learn more.

What is Hypocalcemia? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

63. What is Hypocalcemia? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Hypocalcemia is an electrolyte imbalance that affects the function of the nerves and the muscles. Read more about this imbalance, its various causes, effects on the body, and treatments. Challenge your knowledge with a quiz.

What Is Hypoglycemia? - Definition, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

64. What Is Hypoglycemia? - Definition, Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

In the following lesson, you will learn about hypoglycemia. You will begin to understand its role in diabetes, its causes and treatment, and why it is important to manage symptoms immediately.

What Is Hypokalemia? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

65. What Is Hypokalemia? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Did you ever wonder why athletes are told to eat bananas to prevent muscle cramps? In this lesson, you will learn about the connection between potassium and muscle contraction, as well as the causes and consequences of not having enough potassium in your body (hypokalemia).

What Is Hyponatremia? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

66. What Is Hyponatremia? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

In the following lesson you will learn about what hyponatremia as well as what can causes it to occur. You will become familiar with the symptoms and treatment and learn if it is a serious health concern.

What Is LDL Cholesterol? - Definition & Normal Levels

67. What Is LDL Cholesterol? - Definition & Normal Levels

You've probably heard of 'bad' cholesterol. What is it and what does it mean for your health? Find out in this lesson, then check your understanding with the quiz at the end.

What is Metabolic Acidosis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

68. What is Metabolic Acidosis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

What keeps your blood from becoming too acidic or basic? How does the body control this? Read this lesson to learn about what happens when this balance is overthrown and the blood becomes too acidic, in a scenario called metabolic acidosis.

What Is Mitral Regurgitation? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

69. What Is Mitral Regurgitation? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Mitral regurgitation may sound like something your cat does when it has a hairball, but in actuality it is a very serious heart defect. This fascinating condition, while potentially dangerous, can sometimes produce no symptoms! Learn more about mitral regurgitation's symptoms (or lack thereof) and treatments in this lesson.

What Is Morbid Obesity? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

70. What Is Morbid Obesity? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Morbid obesity is a condition that can lead to major health problems for the patient. Continue reading to learn what morbid obesity is, the symptoms and treatment for this weight-related medical condition.

What Is Omeprazole? - Definition, Uses & Side Effects

71. What Is Omeprazole? - Definition, Uses & Side Effects

From this lesson you will learn about Omeprazole which is a medication that treats gastrointestinal problems. Find out how it works, the proper way to take it and the common to serious side effects.

What Is Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)? - Definition, Components & Complications

72. What Is Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN)? - Definition, Components & Complications

This lesson will describe what total parenteral nutrition is and why it is used. It will also list some of the common components of the formula as well as the complications that are associated with the procedure.

What Is Visceral Pain? - Definition, Referral Patterns & Treatment

73. What Is Visceral Pain? - Definition, Referral Patterns & Treatment

Have you ever had a tummy ache? That might've been due to visceral pain. Learn what that is, how it may trick you, and how it can be treated in various instances.

Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

74. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

What is median arcuate ligament syndrome? In this lesson we will be discussing what median arcuate ligament syndrome is and the symptoms, diagnostic techniques, and treatment of this rare disorder.

Omeprazole Drug Interactions

75. Omeprazole Drug Interactions

Omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, is used on a daily basis to treat acid-reflux. However, this common medication interacts with a significant amount of other medications. In this lesson learn the details of omeprazole drug interactions.

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