Login

Ch 7: Diversity in Society

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and learn about types of crime, different class structures, power's role in class and more. Complete the quizzes that follow each lesson to measure your understanding of these sociology topics.

Diversity in Society

Diversity in society encompasses differences in race, ethnic background and gender, as well as differences in how we act and how we're labeled based upon our income. This chapter's knowledgeable instructors can help you understand more about what makes a society diverse. Once you've completed this chapter, you'll be able to do the following:

  • Explain various theories of deviance.
  • Discuss the four rationales for social punishment.
  • Differentiate between caste and class, as well as among different class levels.
  • Identify types of social mobility, including intragenerational, intergenerational, vertical and horizontal.

VideoObjectives
Sociological Theories of Deviance: Definitions and Theoretical PerspectivesDefine deviance. Explain theories of deviance, including Durkheim and Merton's perspectives.
Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective LabelingExplain labeling theory, including the distinction between retrospective and projective labeling. Define stigma. Discuss Sutherland's differential association theory of deviance and Hirshchi's control theory.
Social-Conflict Theory and Crime: Definitions and Approach to DevianceDiscuss the social-conflict approach to deviance, including deviance and power, deviance and capitalism, and differences between white-collar and blue-collar crime. Define corporate and organized crime.
Crime and Deviance in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Punishment and Due ProcessExplain how the U.S. criminal justice system deals with deviant acts, including due process and four rationales for social punishment (retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation and societal protection).
Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social StratificationDescribe the difference between caste and class. Define social stratification.
American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social ClassesDescribe the American class system/structure, and define upper-, middle-, working, lower- and under-class. Discuss the difference between income and wealth.
Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. HorizontalDefine social mobility, and discuss different types, including intragenerational vs. intergenerational and vertical vs. horizontal.
Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute PovertyExplain the difference between relative and absolute poverty. Discuss links between poverty, race, age and gender, and learn about the 'working poor' and the homeless population.
Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and PovertyExplain differences among high-, middle- and low-income countries, giving examples of each. Define and give explanations for poverty, including modernization and dependency theories.

9 Lessons in Chapter 7: Diversity in Society
Sociological Theories of Deviance: Definitions and Theoretical Perspectives

1. Sociological Theories of Deviance: Definitions and Theoretical Perspectives

There is a diverse range of behaviors in society that goes against expectations and cultural norms. In this lesson, we define and go over some examples of the different types of deviance. We also discuss two sociological theories about deviance created by Emile Durkheim and Robert Merton.

Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling

2. Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling

Labeling others is common in our society. In this lesson, we discuss the specifics of labeling theory, including when and why people are labeled. We also distinguish between retroactive and projective labeling and briefly discuss Travis Hirschi's control theory.

Social Conflict Theory and Crime: Definitions and Approach to Deviance

3. Social Conflict Theory and Crime: Definitions and Approach to Deviance

In this lesson, we discuss the social conflict approach to deviance, including the connection between deviance and power as well as deviance and capitalism. We also discuss the difference between white-collar and blue-collar crime and define corporate crime and organized crime.

Crime and Deviance in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Punishment and Due Process

4. Crime and Deviance in the U.S. Criminal Justice System: Punishment and Due Process

In this lesson, we discuss the U.S. criminal justice system and how it deals with deviant acts. We define due process and discuss four rationales for social punishment: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, and societal protection.

Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social Stratification

5. Social Status: Caste vs. Class and Social Stratification

Social hierarchies exist in all societies and cultures. In this lesson, we define social stratification and its characteristics. We also discuss the difference between open and closed systems, including what differentiates a caste from a class.

American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social Classes

6. American Class System and Structure: Definitions & Types of Social Classes

In this lesson, we discuss the American class system and the social stratification layers that exist within each class. We also differentiate between income and wealth and discuss how they relate to social status.

Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. Horizontal

7. Social Mobility Definition and Types: Intragenerational vs. Intergenerational & Vertical vs. Horizontal

In our society, some individuals and families experience drastic changes in social status and lifestyle. In this lesson, we define social mobility and discuss different types, including intragenerational, intergenerational, vertical, and horizontal mobility.

Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute Poverty

8. Poverty in the United States: Definitions of Relative & Absolute Poverty

Today, a significant number of Americans suffer from poverty. In this lesson, we define and discuss the difference between relative poverty and absolute poverty. We also examine the populations that are most at risk.

Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and Poverty

9. Global Stratification Definition: Differences in Income Levels and Poverty

In this lesson, we define global stratification and discuss how nations are stratified. We discuss the outdated three-world model as well as the current differences between high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries.

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Support