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Ch 3: DNA and Cell Division: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The DNA and Cell Division chapter of this Intro to Anthropology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master an understanding of the basis of inheritance. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of DNA and cell division.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering introductory anthropology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn introductory anthropology. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding reproduction or DNA and cell division
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning social science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about DNA and cell division
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra social science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the DNA and Cell Division chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the DNA and Cell Division chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any DNA or cell division question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in a DNA and cell division unit of a standard introductory anthropology course. Topics covered include:

  • Chemical structure of nucleic acids and phosphodiester bonds
  • Differences between DNA and RNA
  • DNA replication
  • Regulation of gene expression
  • Meiosis and mitosis

31 Lessons in Chapter 3: DNA and Cell Division: Help and Review
DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

1. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds

In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.

DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing

2. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing

Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.

DNA: Double Helix Structure and Hereditary Molecule

3. DNA: Double Helix Structure and Hereditary Molecule

This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.

Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)

4. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)

In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.

What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models

5. What Is DNA Replication? - Conservative, Semi-Conservative & Dispersive Models

How do we know that DNA replication is semi-conservative? How do we know it's not conservative or dispersive? Let's follow the famous experiment by Meselson and Stahl to find out!

How Helicase Unwinds the DNA Double Helix in Preparation for Replication

6. How Helicase Unwinds the DNA Double Helix in Preparation for Replication

How does semi-conservative replication begin? Discover how DNA helicase creates a replication fork to unwind the complicated DNA molecule and allow daughter strands to form on the parental template.

How DNA Polymerase and RNA Primase Initiate DNA Replication

7. How DNA Polymerase and RNA Primase Initiate DNA Replication

How do enzymes assist in starting DNA replication? In this lesson, we explore the work of a contributing enzyme, DNA polymerase, and learn how the RNA primer is made by the action of RNA primase.

DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities

8. DNA Replication: The Leading Strand and DNA Polymerase Activities

How does replication occur in the antiparallel DNA molecule? In this lesson, explore the significance of the leading and lagging strands, and learn how Okazaki fragments and RNA ligase make DNA replication possible.

DNA Replication: Review of Enzymes, Replication Bubbles & Leading and Lagging Strands

9. DNA Replication: Review of Enzymes, Replication Bubbles & Leading and Lagging Strands

Feeling lost in the thorny details of DNA replication? This lesson provides an overview of semi-conservative replication, with a focus on putting together all of the concepts involved. We'll review the work of each enzyme on our way to completing the big picture of DNA replication.

Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

10. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

11. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

12. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

13. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.

Examples of Transcription Regulation in Eukaryotes

14. Examples of Transcription Regulation in Eukaryotes

Transcription is more complicated than just turning a gene 'on' or 'off' like a light switch. In this lesson, you'll learn how eukaryotic transcription is regulated through the use of DNA regulatory regions, DNA methylation, and chromatin modification.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

15. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.

Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

16. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

17. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

18. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.

Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

19. Proteins IV: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary and Quaternary Structure

How is progressing through higher order protein structures like crafting an essay? In this lesson, you'll explore everything from quaternary structures to denaturation as we show how the different structures are intertwined.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

20. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

Post translational Modifications of Proteins

21. Post translational Modifications of Proteins

Just because a polypeptide has been translated from an mRNA sequence, doesn't mean the protein is complete. In this lesson, you'll learn about possible post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, glycosylation, and cleavage.

The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Segregation and Independent Assortment

22. The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: Segregation and Independent Assortment

Mendel proposed the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment to explain the inheritance behind his pea plant traits. A hundred years later, Boveri and Sutton developed the chromosome theory of inheritance, which stated that chromosomes were responsible for the heredity Mendel observed. Learn about these men and their ideas in this lesson.

Physical Features of a Chromosome

23. Physical Features of a Chromosome

Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.

Mitosis I: The Mitotic Spindle

24. Mitosis I: The Mitotic Spindle

Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end

Mitosis II: Phases of Chromosome Segregation

25. Mitosis II: Phases of Chromosome Segregation

Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.

Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells

26. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells

What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.

Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction

27. Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction

Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.

Overview of Meiosis

28. Overview of Meiosis

Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.

Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division

29. Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division

How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!

Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division

30. Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division

Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.

Nondisjunction and Aneuploidy

31. Nondisjunction and Aneuploidy

Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.

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