About This Chapter
DNA Technology and Transgenic Organisms - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
DNA is the building block of life. If you watch those television crime dramas, you've probably heard of DNA being used to catch criminals. It is actually fascinating and does much more than allow cops to catch the bad guys. In this chapter, our instructors will help you learn more about DNA and related concepts. You'll see how polymerase can amplify DNA, learn what a microarray is, and study advances in DNA technology. Additional things that will be covered in these lessons include:
- The polymerase chain reaction
- DNA in cloning
- Gene analysis
- DNA sequences
- Genetic modification of food and animals
- How genetic modification helps livestock
|PCR: Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction||Learn the steps of the polymerase chain reaction.|
|Recombinant DNA: Cloning, Restriction Enzymes, and Plasmids||Discover the basics of recombinant DNA technology.|
|Microarrays: Definition & Analyzing Genes on a Chip||Examine the basics of microarray for analyzing gene-expression.|
|DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome||Explore how DNA sequences are generated.|
|siRNA||See how siRNA inhibits translation of complementary mRNA.|
|Introduction to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs): Synthesizing Recombinant Insulin||Study GMOs and synthetic insulin production.|
|GMOs: Improving Nutrition and Golden Rice||Find out why golden rice is created.|
|GMOs: Growing Herbicide-Resistant Crops||Explore how herbicide-resistant crops are produced.|
|GMOs: Producing Infection-Resistant Cows||Analyze why genetic modification is helpful in cows.|
1. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
How do we make the insulin used by diabetic patients? In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of how genetic engineering can be used to transform a bacterial host cell into a genetically-modified organism that produces human insulin.
2. What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering
DNA plasmids play an integral part in most genetic engineering experiments. In this lesson, you'll learn about key features of a plasmid, such as a multiple cloning site, an origin of replication, and a selectable marker.
3. Restriction Enzymes: Function and Definition
Restriction enzymes played a critical role in the advent of genetic engineering. In this lesson, you will learn what role restriction enzymes play in creating recombinant DNA.
4. How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA
DNA ligase makes recombinant DNA technology possible. In this lesson, you will learn how new versions of genes can be designed for experiments in novel host organisms using DNA ligase.
5. PCR: Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a biotechnology technique that is used to amplify pieces of DNA. In this lesson, you will learn about five ingredients necessary to perform PCR: template DNA, nucleotides, primers, buffer and Taq polymerase.
6. PCR: Steps Involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction
In this lesson, you will learn about the steps required to amplify DNA during PCR. The lesson will explain the role template DNA, primers, nucleotides, Taq polymerase and PCR buffer play in the denaturation, annealing and extension steps of PCR.
7. The Sanger Method of DNA Sequencing
The ability to determine the DNA sequence of an individual is a powerful tool for paternity questions and criminal investigations, among other uses. This lesson will describe one laboratory method that can be used to sequence DNA.
8. DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome
DNA sequencing allows us to determine the exact genes that make up an individual. It can be used to screen for certain diseases and in crime scene analysis. Learn more about it in this lesson.
9. Microarrays: Definition & Analyzing Genes on a Chip
DNA microarrays are used to quickly and efficiently measure the gene expression levels of many genes at the same time. In this lesson, you will learn how microarrays are produced and used by scientists to help identify and treat diseases.
10. RNAi: How siRNA Molecules Inhibit mRNAs
In this lesson, you will learn how siRNA helps cells fight viruses and controls gene expression and how scientists are using siRNA to understand genetic diseases and develop new therapies.
11. GMOs: Improving Nutrition and Golden Rice
Golden rice is a genetically modified rice crop that produces vitamin A. In this lesson, you will learn about how golden rice is made and how it can be used to prevent blindness and death in the developing world.
12. GMOs: Growing Herbicide-Resistant Crops
Crops resistant to herbicides have revolutionized farming. In this lesson, learn how these crops were created and some of the benefits and risks of using them.
13. GMOs: Producing Infection-Resistant Cows
Dairy cows often contract a painful and potentially fatal infection called mastitis. Now, scientists have genetically modified cows that are resistant to this infection. Learn how these cows were created and how their milk might be used in the future.
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