About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding fertilization or fetal development and childbirth
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about fetal development and childbirth
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Early Development to Childbirth chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Early Development to Childbirth chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question about fetal development or childbirth. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:
- How does the sperm and egg come together to form a zygote?
- What is the process of oocyte activation?
- How does the embryo change from a morula to a blastula?
- How does the embryo implant, and how does the placenta form?
- What is the structure and function of the placenta?
- What are the functions of amniotic fluid and the yolk sac?
- How does the process of gastrulation lead to three germ layers?
- Which organs form during the first trimester?
- How does the fetus develop during the second trimester?
- Which developments take place during the third trimester?
- How does the external genitalia develop in males and females?
- What roles do hormones play in labor and delivery?
- What are the three stages of labor?
- What is the normal position for a fetus prior to birth?
- What are the risks of a c-section?
- What complications are associated with multiple births?
- What is the difference between a spontaneous abortion and a premature birth?
- Which hormones are involved in lactation?
- Which anatomical and physiological changes take place during the first month of life?
- What are the most common female sterilization procedures?
- What are the advantages and disadvantages of vasectomies?
1. Fertilization and Zygote Formation: Definition and Processes
Follow the male's sperm and the female's egg on their way to meet each other in this lesson that takes you through the process of fertilization in humans. Learn about the obstacles the sperm must get through before it can fertilize the egg.
2. Fertilization: Oocyte Activation & Cell Cleavage
When is the exact moment of fertilization? Learn the answer in this lesson. We'll look at what happens after the sperm penetrates the outer layers of the oocyte during the process of fertilization.
3. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
4. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
5. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
6. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
7. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
8. Fetal Development in the First Trimester: Stages & Timeline
We all know it takes 9 months for the baby to develop inside the mother's womb, but have you ever thought about how or when all those different organs and systems appear? When does the fetal heart start beating or the brain develop? Find out in this lesson covering the first trimester of pre-natal development.
9. Second Trimester Fetal Development
The growth and development of a baby is an amazingly detailed and complex process. It starts with a ball of cells, which grows all the way to a full grown, eight pound baby in nine months! In this lesson, learn about what happens during the second trimester of pregnancy.
10. Third Trimester Fetal Development
This is it - the last step, the last few months before the birth of a baby! Learn about the changes the developing fetus goes through during the third and final trimester.
11. External Genital Development in Males and Females
The developed genitals of a male look much different than the developed genitals of a female. However, they both grow from identical sets of tissues. Learn more about external genital development and find out how and when the tissue changes.
12. Childbirth: The Role of Hormones in Labor and Delivery
How does a mother's body know when it is time to give birth? How does the labor process begin and end? Learn the answers to these questions in this lesson on the hormones involved in childbirth.
13. The Three Stages of Labor: Dilation, Expulsion & Placental
You may think of the process of labor and childbirth as one long event, but it is actually divided into different stages. Learn about each of the three stages of labor in this lesson.
14. Fetal Dystocia: Normal and Abnormal Fetal Positions Prior to Childbirth
While the majority of births proceed without too many complications, occasionally some births don't go quite as planned. Learn about some of the more common types of complications in this lesson on difficult births and fetal dystocia.
15. What is a C-Section? - Procedure, Types & Delivery
Do you know what happens when something goes wrong during the birthing process? You may have heard about C-sections, but do you know why they are performed - or how? Learn about this and more in this lesson on Cesarean sections.
16. Multiple Births: Symptoms, Difficulties & Types
While the thought of twins or triplets may be exciting or intriguing, have you ever considered the difficulties that are involved in the birthing of multiple babies? Learn about the different types of twins and some of the complications that come along with being pregnant with twins, triplets, and other sets of multiple births.
17. Premature Births and Associated Complications
What classifies a baby as premature? If they are born premature, how likely is it that they will survive? Learn about this and more in this lesson on the risks and complications of premature birth.
18. Common Causes of Miscarriage or Spontaneous Abortion
We all know that sometimes pregnancies don't go as planned. Occasionally, for no apparent reason, the developing baby is miscarried. Learn about some of the symptoms and causes of miscarriages in this lesson.
19. The Neonatal Period: Lactation and Nursing
Ever wonder how the mother's body knows when to produce milk for her coming baby? Learn about the hormones and cells involved in milk production and release in this lesson on lactation and nursing.
20. The Neonatal Period: Changes During the First Month of Life
Development of our internal systems doesn't stop with birth. Learn about some of the main changes that occur during a newborn infant's first month of life in this lesson on the neonatal period.
21. Female Sterilization Procedures: Tubal Ligation and Tubal Occlusion
So, you and your spouse have reached that point in life where you are done having kids. What now? In this lesson, you will learn about some of the methods of permanent female sterilization available to women who have decided not to have any more children.
22. Vasectomy: Purpose, Advantages & Disadvantages
You may have heard of a guy 'getting snipped,' a procedure otherwise known as a vasectomy. What this entails may be simpler than you think. Learn about the procedure, effects and reversal options in this lesson on the vasectomy.
23. What are the Seven Cardinal Movements of Labor?
The Seven Cardinal Movements of Labor refer to the varying head positions a fetus undergoes throughout the labor process. These positions help the fetus successfully navigate the maternal pelvis and birth canal. Learn about these positions and quiz yourself at the end.
24. What Is the Babinski Reflex?
Health care professionals routinely perform a very easy test as part of a neurologic assessment of a newborn. Find out about the Babinski reflex and why it's so helpful in ascertaining the health of babies, and what it means for older individuals.
25. Chorion: Definition & Function
During pregnancy, the mother must be connected with the fetus. In this lesson, you will learn about one of the membranes that develops during pregnancy known as the chorion.
26. What Is a Fallopian Tube? - Function, Obstruction & Definition
This lesson will explore an important structure within the female reproductive system known as the fallopian tube. It will explain the function of the fallopian tubes and discuss several medical problems associated with this structure.
27. What Is Amniotic Fluid? - Levels, Function & Composition
During pregnancy, the fetus develops in a special fluid that helps to keep it protected. The amniotic fluid also aids in the development of the fetus. This lesson covers the make-up and functions of amniotic fluid.
28. What Is Implantation in Pregnancy? - Symptoms & Signs
This lesson will explain how implantation in pregnancy occurs. Learners will understand the symptoms of pregnancy implantation and the signs that accompany this. A short quiz will follow.
29. Zygote: Definition & Explanation
It is hard to believe that all life begins as one solitary cell. In this lesson, we will study zygotes. We will examine them closely to gain an understanding of how they are formed and their function.
30. Cephalohematoma: Definition, Complications & Treatment
In this lesson you will learn about a collection of blood under the scalp of newborns called a cephalohematoma. You will see an example of how a cephalohematoma is formed at birth and how it is treated.
31. Dr. Benjamin Spock: Biography & Theories
This is a brief biography of Dr. Benjamin Spock (1903-1998), one of the world's most famous pediatricians. Included is an overview of his influential and controversial theories.
32. Epidural: Definition, Complications & Risks
An epidural is a type of anesthesia used to provide pain relief during labor or other medical procedures. In this lesson you will learn exactly what an epidural is and how it works, as well as possible complications and risks associated with receiving an epidural.
33. Examples of SOAP Notes in Nursing
From this lesson, you will learn why nurses use SOAP notes to write about patients, as well as what each section of the SOAP notes stand for along with specific examples.
34. Lillian Wald: Biography & Nursing Accomplishments
In today's world, it sometimes seems like one person can't make much of difference. The story of Lillian D. Wald and her work in health and public nursing shows just how much difference one person can make.
35. Nurse Mary Mahoney: Biography & Accomplishments
Mary Mahoney was the first African American nurse who to work in the United States. Read on to learn more about this hard-working student, popular nurse, advocate for equality and pioneer in the nursing profession.
36. Oligohydramnios: Definition, Causes & Treatment
You have likely heard the term, but do you know what amniotic fluid is? Why it is important for a developing baby? In this lesson, you will learn about a condition known as oligohydramnios, as well as its causes and treatment options.
37. Placenta Previa: Definition, Symptoms & Risks
Many potential complications can occur during pregnancy. One complication that can arise is placenta previa. Learn more about placenta previa and its associated symptoms and risks in this lesson.
38. Premature Rupture of Membranes (PROM): Causes & Symptoms
Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is a condition in which the amniotic sac ruptures before the onset of labor in some pregnant women. Learn more about PROM and its causes, symptoms, and treatment.
39. What Are Forceps? - Definition & Types
What do you think of when you hear the word 'forceps'? Would you be surprised to find that you probably use a form of forceps in your daily life? Discover more information about these handy tools.
40. What Is Amniocentesis? - Definition, Purpose, Procedure & Risks
Upon completion of this lesson, you will be able to define amniocentesis and describe how it is performed, its purpose, and potential risks involved. A short quiz follows the lesson.
41. What Is Episiotomy? - Definition, Healing & Complications
After completing this lesson, you will be able to define episiotomy, describe the healing process, and list the complications associated with this procedure. A short quiz follows the lesson.
42. What Is Gestational Diabetes? - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment
Learn the definition and cause of gestational diabetes. Explore important information about this treatable condition that any pregnant woman could develop. Discover what risks it can pose for babies and how it might be managed.
43. What Is Hyperemesis Gravidarum? - Symptoms, Causes & Treatment
Many pregnant women get queasy from time to time, but excessive vomiting and weight loss can be very unhealthy for the mother and the baby. Learn what hyperemesis gravidarum is and what the symptoms, causes and treatments are for it.
44. What Is Kardex? - Definition & Use in Nursing
A Kardex is a medical information system used by nursing staff as a way to communicate important information on their patients. It is a quick summary of individual patient needs that is updated at every shift change.
45. What Is Kernicterus? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
When blood breaks down, it produces bilirubin. Too much bilirubin in the bloodstream of newborn babies can cause a dangerous condition called Kernicterus. Learn more about its symptoms and treatments here.
46. What is Nursing Scope of Practice?
In this lesson, you will learn about the scope of practice in nursing. We will discuss the importance of knowing the scope of practice governed by your state and those endorsed by professional nursing organizations and specialties.
47. What Is Preeclampsia? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive condition that affects some pregnant women. It is often characterized by high blood pressure and a high level of protein in the urine. Learn more about preeclampsia and its causes, symptoms and treatments.
48. What Is SIDS? - Definition, Risk Factors & Causes
In the United States, there are about 2,000 sudden infant deaths each year. Researchers have not figured out why it occurs; nevertheless, some strides have been taken to reduce the risk. Read on to learn more about this condition, the risk factors involved and what you can do to reduce the risk of SIDS.
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Other chapters within the Human Anatomy & Physiology: Help and Review course
- Inorganic Chemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Organic Molecules in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Biochemistry in Anatomy and Physiology: Help and Review
- Basic Anatomy and Cell Biology: Help and Review
- Respiratory System: Help and Review
- Cardiovascular System: Help and Review
- Blood Vessels: Help and Review
- Digestive System: Help and Review
- Urinary System: Help and Review
- Endocrine System: Help and Review
- The Brain: Help and Review
- The Nervous System at the Cellular Level: Help and Review
- The Five Senses: Help and Review
- Muscular System: Help and Review
- Gross Anatomy of Muscular System: Help and Review
- Connective Tissue: Help and Review
- Skeletal System: Help and Review
- Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems: Help and Review