About This Chapter
Earth's Spheres and Astronomy - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Get an overview of Earth's four spheres before taking a more in-depth look at the atmosphere in the chapters to come. Learn how changes deep within Earth's core affect the outermost components of our planet, and find out how scientists use seismic waves to study its composition. You can wrap up this chapter with a lesson discussing the impact of Earth's orbit on each of these spheres. Lessons are designed to teach you about:
- Interactions between Earth's four spheres
- Components of the crust, mantle and core
- Methods for studying Earth's internal layers
- Earth's orbit and the Milankovitch hypothesis
|The Dynamic Earth: Internal & External Forces that Shape Earth's Surface||Find out how earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes and weathering transform Earth's lithosphere.|
|The Four Spheres of Earth: Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, and Atmosphere||Discover components found in each of these four spheres.|
|Interactions of Earth's Spheres: Purpose and Examples||Get some examples of how Earth's geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere interact.|
|Earth's Internal Layers: Crust, Mantle and Core||Study properties of the inner and outer core. Learn about convection in the upper and lower mantle, and examine the thickness of the continental and oceanic crust.|
|How Scientists Study Earth's Interior Structure||Explore the uses of seismographs and seismograms to study the composition of Earth's mantle and core.|
|Astronomy, the Milankovitch Hypothesis, & Earth's Climate||Use the Milankovitch hypothesis to explain how Earth's orbit corresponds with cycles of climate change.|
1. Four Stages of Planetary Development
This lesson will describe the four stage of planetary development. They are, from past to present, differentiation, cratering, flooding, and slow surface evolution.
2. Formation of the Earth: Theories
In this lesson, the theory of how the planet Earth formed will be discussed. This includes looking at how it differentiated into three layers, how it formed its atmosphere, water, and land features, and how it continues to evolve today.
3. The Four Spheres of Earth: Geosphere, Hydrosphere, Biosphere, and Atmosphere
Earth is made up of four distinct yet connect spheres. In this video lesson, you will learn about where each sphere is found on Earth, as well as some features commonly found in each.
4. Interactions of Earth's Spheres: Purpose and Examples
The four spheres of Earth drive all of its processes and support life on our unique planet. In this video lesson, you will see examples of how Earth's spheres interact with each other to form an overall complex and connected system.
5. Major Components of the Atmosphere
Our atmosphere is a complex mixture of many different gases. In this video lesson you will identify the major components of Earth's atmosphere as well as how much there is of each.
6. The Structure of the Atmosphere
If you've ever climbed a mountain or been to the beach, you know that the atmosphere is different at different levels. This lesson explains how the structure of the atmosphere is really like a layer cake.
7. The General Circulation of the Atmosphere
The Sahara Desert, tropical rainforests, and cold polar winds are all due to Earth's rotation. In this video lesson, you will learn how this rotation has created global air circulation patterns on Earth and how it is responsible for such diverse climate patterns across the globe.
8. The Dynamic Earth: Internal & External Forces that Shape Earth's Surface
There are many geologic processes that shape the surface of the Earth. Not only do they build and destroy a variety of landscapes, but they also give us clues to the interior of the Earth and the forces that exist there.
9. Earth's Internal Layers: Crust, Mantle & Core
Earth is made up of several different layers, each with unique properties. In this video lesson, you will identify each layer of Earth and how it relates to Earth as a whole.
10. How Scientists Study Earth's Interior Structure
We can't see what Earth's interior is made of, but scientists are able to study it in other ways. In this video lesson, you will learn how seismic activity helps us understand and describe the inner layers of the earth.
11. Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface
After many years of trying to solve the mystery of the moving continents, enough data and evidence was collected to develop a unifying theory of how the surface of the earth changes. It's called plate tectonics.
12. Seismic Wave: Definition, Types & Frequency
In this lesson, you will learn what seismic waves are, the various types of seismic waves, and their frequencies. You will learn about P-waves, S-waves, Rayleigh waves and Love waves. A short quiz will follow.
13. Subduction Zone: Definition, Location & Example
This lesson will discuss the meaning of the term 'subduction zone,' and where they occur in terms of tectonic plate boundaries. A few examples will be included, and a short quiz will follow.
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Other chapters within the Astronomy 101: Intro to Astronomy course
- The History of Astronomy
- How Scientists Think and Work
- Matter in Astronomy
- Light in Astronomy
- Newton's Laws in Astronomy
- Momentum, Energy, Pressure, Temperature & Gas
- Rotational Motion in Physics
- Influences on Climate
- The Orbits of Celestial Bodies
- The Earth, Sky, and Moon
- The Moon: Formation & Phases
- The Atmosphere on Earth and Other Planets
- The Sun's Structure & Components
- The Solar System: Layout, Formation & Dating
- Characteristics of Our Solar System's Planets
- Small Celestial Bodies & Satellites in Our Solar System
- Measurement of Star Qualities
- Star Types and Significance
- The Birth and Life of Stars
- Star Death and Stellar Remnants
- The Milky Way Galaxy
- Galaxies: Properties & Characteristics
- The Universe: Key Concepts & Theories
- Life in the Universe
- Celestial Navigation & Timekeeping
- Relativity in Time and Space