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Ch 10: Endocrine System: Help and Review

About This Chapter

The Endocrine System chapter of this Human Anatomy and Physiology Help and Review course is the simplest way to master an understanding of the endocrine system. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure students learn the essentials of the endocrine system.

Who's it for?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering human anatomy and physiology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn human anatomy and physiology. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding hormones or the endocrine system
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about the endocrine system
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How it works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Endocrine System chapter exam.

Why it works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Endocrine System chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any endocrine system question. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students will review:

In this chapter, you'll learn the answer to questions including:

  • Which glands make up the endocrine system?
  • What is the role of hormones?
  • Which hormones are produced by the anterior pituitary gland?
  • What is the pituitary gland's relationship with the hypothalamus?
  • Which disorders can result from pituitary dysfunction?
  • Which hormones are produced by the thyroid gland and how do they help regulate metabolism?
  • Which disorders can result from abnormal thyroid function?
  • How is the parathyroid gland important to calcium metabolism?
  • How does the pancreas produce insulin?
  • Which disorders can result from abnormal functioning of the pancreas?
  • What are the structures and functions of the adrenal glands?
  • How do epinephrine and norepinephrine help us adapt to stress?
  • What role do androgens play in the body?
  • What are the functions of cortisol and aldosterone?
  • How are adrenal gland disorders treated?
  • What is the relationship between melatonin and the circadian rhythm?
  • How do the hormones of the testes and ovaries contribute to secondary sex characteristics?
  • Which hormones help to form the placenta?

43 Lessons in Chapter 10: Endocrine System: Help and Review
Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System

1. Hormones: Definition, Function & Intro to the Endocrine System

This lesson introduces the endocrine system and provides a brief overview of each endocrine gland. It also provides the definition of hormones and describes their general function inside the body.

What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus

2. What Is the Pituitary Gland? - Functions, Hormones & Hypothalamus

In this lesson, we'll discuss the functions of the anterior and posterior portions of the pituitary gland, the hormones they release and the relationship with the hypothalamus.

Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions

3. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary Gland: Names & Functions

The anterior pituitary gland secretes six hormones. In this lesson, you will learn the functions of the hormones: growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

Pituitary Dysfunction: Disorders and Symptoms

4. Pituitary Dysfunction: Disorders and Symptoms

The pituitary gland secretes hormones that affect growth, reproductive ability, and water retention. If there is a hypo- or hyper-secretion of these hormones, the result can be a number of conditions, including pituitary dwarfism, gigantism, acromegaly, sterility, or diabetes insipidus.

The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH

5. The Thyroid Gland: Functions, Calcitonin & TSH

Your thyroid gland produces the hormones T3 and thyroxine (T4), which play a role in metabolism. Your thyroid also produces calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels. In this lesson, you will learn about the thyroid gland and its hormones, including how they are regulated by TSH.

Thyroid Disorders: Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism & Thyroidectomy

6. Thyroid Disorders: Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism & Thyroidectomy

The thyroid gland produces hormones that help set your metabolic rate. This lesson will discuss conditions of the thyroid gland, including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, and their related symptoms.

Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH

7. Parathyroid Gland: Calcium Metabolism, Osteoclasts & PTH

The parathyroid glands are tiny endocrine glands found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. In this lesson,, you will learn about the parathyroid glands, and the role parathyroid hormone plays in maintaining normal blood calcium levels.

Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production

8. Pancreas: Functions, Anatomy & Insulin Production

The islets of Langerhans within your pancreas produce the hormones insulin and glucagon. In this lesson, you will learn how these hormones regulate your blood sugar level in opposite ways.

Disorders of the Pancreas: Types, Symptoms & Treatments

9. Disorders of the Pancreas: Types, Symptoms & Treatments

The pancreas produces insulin. If the pancreas is incapable of producing insulin or cells do not respond to this hormone, then a person can develop diabetes mellitus. In this lesson, you will learn about diabetes and how it relates to the pancreas.

Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla

10. Adrenal Glands: Function, Cortex & Medulla

The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys and are comprised of an inner medulla region that is enclosed by the outer adrenal cortex. Both portions of the adrenal gland secrete hormones that regulate body functions and help maintain internal balance.

Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation

11. Adrenal Glands: Epinephrine, Norepinephrine & Stress Adaptation

The adrenal medulla is the central portion of the adrenal gland. In this lesson, you will learn about the two hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla - epinephrine and norepinephrine - and how they help you deal with short-term stressors.

Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens

12. Adrenal Cortex: Glucocorticoids and Androgens

The adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones. In this lesson, you will learn about two of these steroid hormones: glucocorticoids, which help you deal with long-term stress, and androgens, which influence male sexual characteristics.

Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance

13. Adrenal Cortex: Aldosterone and Body Fluid Balance

Mineralocorticoids are a type of steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex. In this lesson, you will learn about the main mineralocorticoid, aldosterone, and how it regulates your body's salt and water balance.

Adrenal Gland Disorders & Treatments: Addison's Disease and Prednisone

14. Adrenal Gland Disorders & Treatments: Addison's Disease and Prednisone

The adrenal glands secrete hormones that help maintain balance in your body. But, if these hormones are over- or under-secreted, disease can develop. In this lesson, you will learn about disorders of the adrenal glands, including Addison's disease and Cushing's syndrome, as well as their treatments.

Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm

15. Pineal Gland, Functions, Melatonin & Circadian Rhythm

Deep inside your brain sits a very small endocrine gland called the pineal gland. This tiny gland secretes the hormone melatonin, and in this lesson, you will learn about the role melatonin plays in regulating sleep and wake cycles.

Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features

16. Hormones of the Testes and Ovaries: Functions & Anatomical Features

The testes and the ovaries secrete steroid hormones that help you grow and develop. In this lesson, we will learn about the female hormones, estrogen and progesterone, and the male hormone, testosterone, and how these hormones influence the development of secondary sex characteristics.

Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG

17. Hormones of the Placenta: Estrogen, Progesterone & hCG

The placenta is an endocrine gland that is only present during pregnancy. In this lesson, you will learn about the hormones it produces, including human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), progesterone, estrogen, and human placental lactogen (hPL).

Adrenal Fatigue: Symptoms, Treatment & Diet

18. Adrenal Fatigue: Symptoms, Treatment & Diet

Adrenal fatigue is an uncommon medical condition that can cause serious problems if left untreated. In this lesson, we will learn about adrenal fatigue, including its symptoms and treatment.

Adrenaline: Definition & Effects

19. Adrenaline: Definition & Effects

In this lesson, we will explore the hormone adrenaline to learn what it is, where it is produced, and what it does to the organ systems of your body when it is released.

What is Hypothyroidism? - Symptoms & Treatment

20. What is Hypothyroidism? - Symptoms & Treatment

More than four percent of Americans over the age of 12 have hypothyroidism. Learn about hypothyroidism, its symptoms, how hypothyroidism is treated, and more.

Callus: Definition, Formation & Treatment

21. Callus: Definition, Formation & Treatment

You're probably familiar with the term calluses, even if you don't quite know what they are. Read on to learn what a callus is, how it forms, and how you can treat it. Then take a short quiz on the definition, formations, and treatments.

Eschar: Definition, Formation & Treatment

22. Eschar: Definition, Formation & Treatment

Eschars are crusty or leathery dead patches of tissue found on wounds. Read this lesson to learn what causes them, how they form, and how they are treated. Warning: this lesson isn't for the faint of heart -- or stomach!

Excoriation: Definition & Treatment

23. Excoriation: Definition & Treatment

Excoriation is a difficult condition to diagnose and treat because it is a type of mental disorder. Read through this lesson to learn what excoriation is, how it develops, what it causes a person to do, and how it is treated.

Insulin Resistance: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

24. Insulin Resistance: Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Insulin resistance can develop into type 2 diabetes if left untreated. However, making lifestyle changes can drastically reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Learn more about insulin resistance, including risk factors, how to test for it, and how you can reverse it.

Lichenification of Skin: Definition & Treatment

25. Lichenification of Skin: Definition & Treatment

Lichenification of the skin sounds like something out of a movie, but it is a real condition that unfortunately affects many people. Read this lesson to learn more about the symptoms and treatment options.

Macule: Definition & Treatment

26. Macule: Definition & Treatment

Have you ever seen small spots on your skin that are a different color than the majority of the rest of it? Did you ever wonder what these spots were? In this lesson, learn the definition of a macule as well as available treatment options.

Milia: Definition, Causes & Treatment

27. Milia: Definition, Causes & Treatment

Have you ever noticed small, white bumps across the nose and cheeks of a newborn and wondered what they were? Learn more about milia and its causes and treatments in this lesson.

Papule: Definition, Causes & Treatment

28. Papule: Definition, Causes & Treatment

A papule is a blemish that forms on the skin. Watch this lesson to learn more about what it looks like, what causes it to form, and how to treat it should one form on you.

Polydipsia: Definition, Causes & Symptoms

29. Polydipsia: Definition, Causes & Symptoms

Polydipsia is another word for excessive thirst. Read on to find out what causes this extreme thirst, what the other symptoms may be, and how to treat it (besides drinking lots of water).

Pressure Ulcer: Definition, Stages & Treatment

30. Pressure Ulcer: Definition, Stages & Treatment

What is a pressure ulcer? You may have heard them referred to as bedsores, since they happen when pressure on parts of the body causes sores to develop. Read this lesson to learn about how they're classified and treated.

Pustule: Definition, Causes & Treatment

31. Pustule: Definition, Causes & Treatment

The word pustule probably conjures up some interesting images in your head. Read this lesson to learn exactly what a pustule is, how it forms, the associated symptoms, and how it can be treated.

What Are Petechiae? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

32. What Are Petechiae? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Have you ever seen one, or maybe even many, reddish-purple spots on your skin? In this lesson, learn about the colored skin lesions called petechiae, their causes, and how they can be treated.

What Is a Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)? - Definition & Side Effects

33. What Is a Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)? - Definition & Side Effects

Some people avoid the glucose tolerance test when their doctors order it. It sounds scary, but is it really? (Answer: no, not really.) Discover what the glucose tolerance test is, and what it is used for.

What Is a Keloid Scar? - Definition, Causes & Removal

34. What Is a Keloid Scar? - Definition, Causes & Removal

What happens when the body's own injury repair system just doesn't know when to stop repairing? A keloid forms! Learn more about this fascinating phenomenon with this lesson.

What Is Acromegaly? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

35. What Is Acromegaly? - Definition, Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Explore the cause of acromegaly and how it will affect those that have been diagnosis with the disease process. Learn signs, symptoms, and current treatment.

What Is ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)? - Definition, Function & Deficiency

36. What Is ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic Hormone)? - Definition, Function & Deficiency

Does the term ACTH confuse you? Do the complex regulatory mechanisms in the adrenal system give you a never ending headache? If so, this lesson will demystify ACTH; it's function, role, and place in the endocrine system and human disease.

What Is DKA? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

37. What Is DKA? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life threatening condition for patients with diabetes. Learn the trigger for, the symptoms of, and the treatment for this terrifying condition in this lesson.

What Is Erythema? - Definition, Symptoms & Causes

38. What Is Erythema? - Definition, Symptoms & Causes

Have you ever wondered what that red area on your skin is called? This lesson will review what erythema is, associated symptoms of erythema, and potential causes.

What Is Hirsutism? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

39. What Is Hirsutism? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Hirsuitism is a disorder that affects a small number of women. Read more about the phenomenon of hirsuitism, its various causes and forms of treatment available. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.

What Is Hyperglycemia? - Definition & Symptoms

40. What Is Hyperglycemia? - Definition & Symptoms

Hyperglycemia is a condition that commonly affects people with diabetes, but can also be a symptom of other conditions. Learn the definition and explore the most frequently seen physical symptoms.

What Is Ketosis? - Definition & Symptoms

41. What Is Ketosis? - Definition & Symptoms

What is ketosis? It's actually a normal part of your body's metabolic processes, but sometimes things get out of balance, and too many ketones begin building up. Learn how this happens, what the symptoms are, and how it's treated.

What Is Melanoma? - Types, Stages, Symptoms & Treatment

42. What Is Melanoma? - Types, Stages, Symptoms & Treatment

Melanoma is the most dangerous and deadly form of skin cancer. Learn more about the types, stages, symptoms and treatment of melanoma, and test your knowledge with a quiz.

What Is Purpura? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

43. What Is Purpura? - Definition, Causes & Treatment

Purpura is a medical condition where a person has purple-colored spots or blotches on the skin or on their mucus membranes. This lesson will explain why these blotches occur, where they might be found, and how they are treated.

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