About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering high school biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding adaptation, selection and evolution
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about evolution
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the evolution chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the evolution chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any evolution question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an evolution unit of a standard high school biology course. Topics covered include:
- Evidence, rates and theories of evolution
- Genetic variability
- Hardy Weinberg equilibrium equation
- Natural and artificial selection
1. Theory of Evolution
We'll look at the interplay between population genetics and environment. Are traits individually acquired or do entire populations evolve? The flying hamsters and a few other notable experiments will provide the answers.
2. Evidence for Evolution: Paleontology, Biogeography, Embryology, Comparative Anatomy & Molecular Biology
There is much support for the theory of evolution. This evidence comes from a variety of scientific fields and provides information that helps us trace changes in species over time. In this lesson, we'll look at this evidence and explore how it supports the theory of evolution.
3. Rates of Evolution: Punctuated Equilibrium & Molecular Clock Hypothesis
In general, evolution is a very long process. But rates of evolution can be different for different organisms. In this video lesson, you will identify how scientists study rates of evolution and fill in some of the missing 'steps' in the fossil record.
4. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium I: Overview
In this lesson, we'll examine population genetics in greater detail. We'll also explore notions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for large, stable populations. Is the genetic makeup of our flying hamster population changing? The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium can serve as a reference point as we try to answer population genetics questions.
5. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium II: The Equation
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation is represented by a polynomial, so we'll have to do some calculations. Don't be intimidated; a few coin tosses can help us make sense of allelic frequencies in a given gene pool.
6. Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium III: Evolutionary Agents
In this lesson, you'll learn how the Hardy-Weinberg equation relates to different evolutionary agents and population changes. Discover how the equation may be used to discover populations that are not in equilibrium.
7. Natural Selection and Adaptation
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
8. Types of Natural Selection
We'll take a look at the types of natural selection that can occur. From flying hamsters to moths, you'll start to grasp the different paths organisms can take as they respond to their changing environments over time.
9. Speciation I: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
Discover the definition of a species and learn more about how species split. Find out common terms related to the splitting of species and study what role polyploidy plays in the development of a species.
10. Speciation II: Prezygotic Barriers
We may take for granted why animals choose to mate with other animals of similar appearance, but it's not that simple. There are actually biological barriers to reproduction that can prevent even seemingly closely related species from reproducing. This lesson looks at one such category of hindrances, prezygotic barriers, which make fertilization impossible.
11. Speciation III: Postzygotic Barriers
Do flying hamsters represent a separate species from your run-of-the-mill hamsters? We'll get to the bottom of this by performing crosses between the two hamster types. You'll explore postzygotic reproductive barriers and their possibly tragic consequences.
12. Genetic Variability and Random Mutation
Evolution is driven by variation among populations. The amount of variability determines how well a population can adapt to environmental changes, while random mutations can provide new variations that help a population adapt to unexpected changes.
13. An Example of Rapid Adaptation: The Peppered Moths
Normally, adaptations occur over thousands or millions of years. However, drastic changes in the environment can shorten the time period in which a change comes about. In such cases, we can learn a lot about the evolutionary process and how natural selection drives it forward.
14. Artificial Selection in Evolution
Humans have been selectively breeding for desirable traits in plants and animals for a long time. This artificial selection allows for a lot of control in the breeding process but can also lead to unintended mutations within a population of organisms.
15. The Four Forces of Evolution
As you might have guessed, evolution in the natural world is not a simple proposition. There are four different forces that propel evolution onward. In this lesson, you will learn what those forces are and how they work.
16. Evolutionary Fitness: Definition & Explanation
Why is 'Survival of the Fittest' wrong? What did Darwin actually say? Does your brain have anything that makes you a better hunter? This lesson will discuss evolutionary fitness, natural selection and how they might relate to the evolution of the human mind.
17. Paul Ekman & Emotion: Face Training Study, Overview
You most likely can determine facial expressions depicting basic emotions such as a happy face versus a sad face. What is difficult to do is to read subtle facial expressions that to the untrained eye may appear neutral. Paul Ekman specializes in reading faces and was the inspiration behind the TV show Lie To Me.
18. Survival of The Fittest & Herbert Spencer: Definition & Examples
What is Social Darwinism? How is it different than evolution? What does Social Darwinism have in common with Darwin's theories of evolution? Where did Survival of the Fittest come from, and what does it mean?
19. Evolutionary Relationships: Definition & Diagram
Just like you can build a family tree to show the relationships of your ancestors and their descendants, scientists can build trees to show the evolutionary relationships of species. In this lesson, learn how to interpret these evolutionary trees.
20. Vocal Tract: Anatomy & Diagram
This lesson goes over the anatomy of the vocal tract, the amazing part of our body responsible for producing human speech. We will cover the larynx and the pharynx, the major components of our vocal tract.
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