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- Examine the functional groups of organic molecules.
- Take a look at monomers and polymers.
- Describe the structures and functions of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
- Discuss complementary base pairing in DNA.
- Become familiar with the double helix structure of DNA.
- Explain the difference between DNA and RNA.
1. Introduction to Organic Molecules I: Functional Groups
If you've ever wondered what gives vinegar that sour flavor, you may not realize that you have contemplated functional groups. View this lesson for an introduction to organic chemistry, functional groups and how they are part of your daily life.
2. Introduction to Organic Molecules II: Monomers and Polymers
From everyday man-made items like milk jugs and styrofoam to natural proteins and plant materials, the world is full of polymers! Check out this lesson to learn how polymers are constructed on a molecular level.
3. Structure and Function of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are found in many foods that we eat and may be found as sugars, starches, or fiber. Learn more about these three distinct types of carbohydrates, and how they are distinguished through their chemical structures in this lesson.
4. Structure and Function of Lipids
Molecules called lipids have long hydrocarbon chains that determine the way they act. They can be fats, oils, or hormones, and even exist in our cell membranes. Learn more about the chemical structure and biological function of various lipids in this lesson.
5. Proteins I: Structure and Function
We need our proteins, not just as a major food group but for the many useful roles that they play in our bodies. In our introductory lesson to proteins, you'll learn about the many functions we rely on them to perform.
6. Proteins II: Amino Acids, Polymerization and Peptide Bonds
In this lesson, we'll take a deeper look at amino acids. You'll learn what makes a peptide, and what separates a protein from other kinds of amino acid bonds.
7. DNA: Chemical Structure of Nucleic Acids & Phosphodiester Bonds
In this lesson, you'll discover what nucleotides look like and how they come together to form polynucleotides. We'll also explore nucleic acids and focus on DNA in particular.
8. DNA: Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine & Complementary Base Pairing
Learn the language of nucleotides as we look at the nitrogenous bases adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine. Armed with this knowledge, you'll also see why DNA strands must run in opposite directions.
9. DNA: Double Helix Structure and Hereditary Molecule
This lesson will help you to navigate the twists and turns of DNA's structure. We'll also clue you in on the amazing discoveries that put this nucleic acid in the limelight as the molecule of heredity.
10. Differences Between RNA and DNA & Types of RNA (mRNA, tRNA & rRNA)
In this lesson, you'll explore RNA structure and learn the central dogma of molecular biology. Along the way, you'll meet the three types of RNA and see how the cell uses them most effectively.
11. Activation Energy of Enzymes: Definition, Calculation & Example
With this lesson you will understand what the activation energy of a chemical reaction is. You will also learn what enzymes are and how they affect chemical reactions.
12. Amine: Definition, Structure, Reactions & Formula
What does the fried fish you eat and dog poop have in common? The answer is amines. In this lesson, we will learn about the chemical structure of amines and how they react.
13. Carrier Proteins: Types & Functions
In this lesson, you'll learn the definition of a carrier protein. Also, you'll explore the types of carrier proteins and find out how they each assist molecules as they pass through the cell membrane.
14. Electrolyte: Definition & Examples
Electrolytes are charged particles that are critical for biological systems. They play a role in many of the bodily functions of humans, and must be maintained for proper health. This lesson discusses electrolytes and their role in the body.
15. Enantiomers: Definition, Properties & Examples
Just like how our hands are mirror images of each other, molecules can also have mirror images that cannot be superimposed on each other. These molecules are called enantiomers. In this lesson, we'll discuss their properties and show some examples.
16. Inhibitors: Definition & Types
In this lesson, we introduce the concept of a chemical inhibitor, how chemists use them to stop or modify reactions, and common types of chemical inhibitors you may encounter in everyday life.
17. What is Sucrose? - Function, Structure & Chemical Equation
Sucrose is a type of sugar that is present in almost everything we eat. It is a natural compound and one that gives us valuable energy, but it can be harmful when over-consumed.
18. Enzyme-Substrate Complex: Definition & Overview
Enzymes are almost everywhere in your body. Discover where they are found, how they work and why they are important. Learn two models for how the enzyme-substrate complex is formed as well as the changes that could cause this bonding to fail.
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