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- Explain how energy is transformed in living organisms.
- Discuss the process of cellular respiration.
- Provide examples of redox reactions in cellular respiration.
- Name the steps and products of the glycolysis pathway, the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain.
- Describe the importance of chlorophyll in photosynthesis.
- Learn about the Calvin-Benson cycle.
1. Energy and Life: The Transformation of Energy in Living Organisms
While the sun is an excellent source of energy, not all forms of life can utilize the sun's energy directly. This lesson describes how plants transform the sun's energy into potential energy stored in sugar, how living organisms utilize energy in sugar to perform work, and how the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration is necessary for life.
2. Cellular Respiration: Energy Transfer in Cells
Watch this short video to learn the basics about converting organic compounds into ATP, also known as cellular respiration. We'll look at an overview of the process.
3. Redox Reactions & Electron Carriers in Cellular Respiration: Definitions and Examples
Redox reactions play an important role in cellular respiration. In this lesson, you will see how NAD and FAD are used as electron carriers to temporarily store energy during cellular respiration.
4. Glycolysis Pathway: Steps, Products & Importance
Cellular respiration creates chemical energy in the form of ATP from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In this lesson, we'll learn about the first part of this process, glycolysis.
5. The Citric Acid (Krebs) Cycle: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we return to the process of cellular respiration for the second act of creating energy from food. In this act, products from glycolysis feed into the next stage, the citric acid cycle.
6. The Electron Transport Chain: Products and Steps
In this lesson, we'll learn about the finale of cellular respiration. The electron transport chain uses products from the first two acts of glycolysis and the citric acid cycle to complete the chemical reaction that turns our food into usable cellular energy.
7. Chlorophyll: Absorbing Light Energy for Photosynthesis
Plants are clean, green, photosynthesizing machines. Using a specialized pigment called chlorophyll, plants are able to soak up energy from the sun and turn it into food. In this lesson, we'll start to learn why chlorophyll literally gets excited about a sunny day!
8. Photolysis and the Light Reactions: Definitions, Steps, Reactants & Products
In this lesson, we'll learn how electrons get excited during the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, jumping off photosystem reaction centers like they were trampolines! In addition, we'll learn how the splitting of water creates reactants for this part of photosynthesis while creating a little fresh air for us.
9. Dark Reactions of Photosynthesis: The Calvin-Benson Cycle
Photosynthesis starts out using the energy from sunlight to get things started, but it ends with the dark reactions, which don't need sunshine to complete sugar production. In the Calvin cycle, ATP and NADPH from the light reactions are used to produce sugars.
10. Anaerobic Respiration: Definition, Equation & Examples
Many organisms are capable of undergoing anaerobic respiration. In some cases, it's a 'backup plan' when oxygen is absent, and in other cases, they thrive that way. Here we will investigate what anaerobic respiration is, the equation and examples of it at work.
11. Accessory Pigments in Photosynthesis: Definition & Function
In this lesson we will explore what a pigment is and the role of chlorophyll in photosynthesis. We will explore how accessory pigments increase a photosynthetic organism's ability to capture sunlight.
12. Tonoplast: Definition & Function
In the word of plants, we often hear the suffix, 'plast.' From chloroplasts to leucoplasts to amyloplasts, we often associate the suffix plast with plant. Such is the case here, with tonoplasts.
13. Cellular Respiration in Mitochondria
How do cells actually get the energy needed to keep you alive? What does this energy look like? This lesson addresses those questions through an investigation of cellular respiration inside the mitochondria. A summary and quiz are included.
14. Action & Absorption Spectra in Photosynthesis
Learn about the action spectrum in plants; that is, what colors of light they use for photosynthesis. We will then discuss the absorption spectrum; that is, what colors of light they absorb, and whether they use them for photosynthesis or not.
15. What Are Aerobic Organisms? - Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn what an aerobic organism is and go over some key examples of different organisms that are aerobic. Afterward, you can test your knowledge with a short quiz.
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