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- Describe the properties of alleles.
- Understand Mendel's first and second laws.
- Take a look at the exceptions to simple dominance and independent assortment.
- Explain the theory of evolution.
- Discuss the different types of natural selection and adaptation.
1. Overview of Genetics
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
4. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, cue up the video and see how.
5. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
6. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex Linked and Sex Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
7. Theory of Evolution
We'll look at the interplay between population genetics and environment. Are traits individually acquired or do entire populations evolve? The flying hamsters and a few other notable experiments will provide the answers.
8. Natural Selection and Adaptation
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
9. Types of Natural Selection
We'll take a look at the types of natural selection that can occur. From flying hamsters to moths, you'll start to grasp the different paths organisms can take as they respond to their changing environments over time.
10. Codon: Definition & Sequences
DNA is written in a language that uses 3-letter words. Each 3-letter word is called a codon. A full sentence in this DNA language is a gene. This lesson defines codons and discusses the different sequences which give rise to amino acids.
11. Cynognathus: Facts & Overview
Cynognathus may hold the record for the sheer number of different genus and species names it has carried since its discovery in the late 19th century - at least nine! But that's not why it is an important fossil. Learn more in this lesson.
12. Exons: Definition & Overview
Scientists once thought that each gene produced a single protein. Now we know that isn't true. Indeed, alternative splicing can create several products from one gene. This can be done by changing which exons are retained or spliced. But what is an exon?
13. Gene Regulation: Definition & Overview
Organisms do not want all of their genes to be expressed all of the time. This would use up way too many resources and energy. So, cells have evolved mechanisms for controlling gene expression. This lesson describes many types of gene regulation.
14. Genetic Crossing Over: Definition & Concept
Crossing over of genes is a big factor in the genetic diversity of living things. Here we will define the process of crossing over, and further explore the mechanism behind it.
15. Georges Lemaitre & The Big Bang Theory
Georges Lemaitre was a Belgian astronomer who first proposed the idea that the universe was created from an explosion from a single point. This lesson will cover the facts of his career and his theory.
16. Glossopteris: Fossils, Overview
In this lesson, learn about the glossopteris, an extinct genus of seed-bearing plant that was common 250 million years ago. Read about the qualities and time period of this plant, and then test your knowledge with a quiz.
17. James Hutton: Theory of the Earth & Evolution
James Hutton is often described as the 'Father of Geology.' This lesson will cover his discoveries and theories. After the lesson, there will be a quiz to test your knowledge.
18. Mesosaurus: Fossils & Facts
Mesosaurus may or may not have been a reptile. It may or may not have lived in the ocean. Is there anything about it we know for sure? Read on and find out.
19. Monohybrid Cross: Definition & Example
Some genetic characteristics are inherited in predictable patterns. In this lesson you will learn what monohybrids are and how to predict the kinds of characteristics that their offspring will show.
20. Polyploidy: Definition & Types
In this lesson, we introduce the concept of polyploidy and its base term ploidy. We'll discuss different types of ploidy and see some examples of polyploidy in plants, animals, and humans.
21. Primary Oocytes: Definition & Concept
Primary oocytes arrive by the millions, but each one is unique. Learn more about the precursors of life and what it takes for these cells to survive to maturity.
22. Speciation: Definition, Examples & Role in Evolution
Can you believe that over two million species have been identified on Earth? Have you ever wondered how so many species formed on Earth? Learn more about how new species form and test your knowledge with a quiz.
23. Telomeres: Definition & Function
Every time your cells divide you lose some DNA. Does this mean that you are losing genetic information during cell division? No, cells have telomeres that protect genetic information. Read on to learn more about telomeres.
24. Template DNA: Definition & Concept
When an architect wants to make perfect curves on a design, he uses a template. Your body uses template DNA to make a perfect copy of a protein. Scientists also use template DNA to make copies of a small sample of DNA using PCR.
25. Tetraploid: Definition & Explanation
Chromosomes are the gene-containing structures found in the cells of every living thing. Tetraploid organisms have a unique count of these chromosomes, resulting in unique gene expressions. We'll explore the definition of the term tetraploid and examine some examples in this lesson.
26. X Chromosome: Definition & Disorders
In humans, the X chromosome is one example of a sex chromosome. If you are a girl, you have two X chromosomes. If you are a boy, you have only one X chromosome. Learn more about the X chromosome and disorders associated with it in this lesson.
27. Barr Body: Definition & Formation
Learn how female cells handle two X chromosomes in their DNA by the formation of the Barr body. Discover how the X chromosome influences an organism's genetics and physical display.
28. Microevolution: Definition, Causes & Examples
This lesson explains the concept of microevolution. It describes the processes that drive microevolution within populations and is complete with both illustrations and real-world examples. A brief quiz is also included.
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