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- Learn about the genome.
- Become familiar with the structure of chromosomes.
- List the phases of the cell cycle.
- Describe a chromosome's physical features.
- Examine the cell division processes of mitosis and meiosis.
- Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction.
- Discuss the consequences of nondisjunction and aneuploidy.
1. The Genome
There are approximately 3 billion bases in the human genome. In this lesson, you'll learn more about the genome and its organization into chromosomes. We think about DNA often as the blueprint for life, but we can also think of it as the recipe for life with the nucleus being the library.
2. The Structure of Chromosomes
Explore the structure of chromosomes and see how DNA fits inside the nucleus of the cell. In this lesson, you'll learn about histones, chromatin and nucleosomes.
3. The Cell Cycle
Learn about the dividing and non-dividing states of the cell and discover the different phases of the cell cycle, including interphase, cytokinesis, and the stages of cell division.
4. DNA Packaging and Chromosome Condensation
Learn how DNA packaging makes it possible to fit approximately seven feet of DNA inside a single cell. You'll see how chromosome condensation helps cells get ready for cell division.
5. Physical Features of a Chromosome
Learn all about chromosomes, including the different parts of a chromosome and the types of chromosomes in diploid organisms like humans. Learn the vocab used with chromosomes.
6. Mitosis I: The Mitotic Spindle
Condensation makes DNA ready / And microtubules hold it steady / A microtubule's a fancy rope / To move the DNA is the hope / From spindle poles they do extend / To align each chromosome in the end
7. Mitosis II: Phases of Chromosome Segregation
Let's take a second look at mitosis and focus on the phases of chromosome segregation. As we concentrate on chromosomes, you'll learn the tricky dance that takes place through all five phases of mitosis.
8. Cytokinesis: Animal Versus Plant Cells
What's a cell to do when it must divide in two? We'll explore cytokinesis and see how the process can differ in important ways when it comes to plant versus animal cells.
9. Asexual Versus Sexual Reproduction
Did you know that some organisms can reproduce without a mate? Check out this video lesson on asexual versus sexual reproduction to discover the different ways organisms can reproduce and the main differences between mitosis and meiosis.
10. Overview of Meiosis
Welcome to meiosis, a realm of division doubled for reproduction untroubled. You'll get a preview of both divisions of meiosis and see what it takes to go from a diploid cell to a haploid gamete.
11. Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division
How does meiosis keep track of homologs and reduce the genome by half? Know these answers and more as we navigate the steps of meiosis I. This lesson will be tetradical!
12. Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division
Behold round two of meiotic cell division! You'll see how meiosis II keeps the genome intact and gives the final push to produce haploid gametes, which make the world go round.
13. Nondisjunction and Aneuploidy
Learn why proper chromosome segregation is essential during meiosis. We'll see how having an extra chromosome can lead to Down Syndrome and also examine the consequences of having too few chromosomes. Disruptions to the delicate balance of cell division can have far-reaching effects.
14. Autosomes: Definition & Concept
An autosome is any chromosome that is not a sex-determining chromosome, so most chromosomes are autosomes. You can learn more about human autosomes in this lesson.
15. Exocytosis: Definition & Examples
Like a factory, cells make products. Some of these stay in the cell and others are exported. This lesson is about how cellular products are shipped out of the cell using a process called exocytosis.
16. Gametophyte: Definition & Explanation
Wouldn't it be weird if humans had entire generations in which individuals had half the normal number of chromosomes in their cells? Plants actually have this generation, and it is called a gametophyte. Learn more about gametophytes in this lesson.
17. Histones: Function & Types
Did you know that you have almost six feet of DNA in each of your cells? The diameter of the largest human cell is about the width of a hair. So, how does all that DNA fit inside a cell without spikes of DNA sticking out all over? The answer is histones.
18. What Are Platelets? - Definition, Function & Normal Range
Platelets are tiny cell fragments that circulate through our bloodstream. Their role is to help stop bleeding when there is an injury to our body. Learn more about the importance of platelets, and take a short quiz at the end.
19. Parent & Daughter Cells in Mitosis
How do cells grow? Why are you bigger than a newborn baby? This lesson helps answer those questions via an investigation into the parent and daughter cells of mitosis. A lesson summary and brief quiz are also included.
20. Polyploidy in Plants & Animals: Speciation & Cells
In this lesson, we'll go over what polyploidy is and what cells look like during polyploidy. We'll also cover specific examples of speciation in plants and animals.
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