About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering introductory anthropology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn introductory anthropology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding Mendelian genetics for anthropologists
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning social science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about genetics for anthropologists
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra social science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Genetics for Anthropologists chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Genetics for Anthropologists chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any genetics question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a genetics unit of a standard general anthropology course. Topics covered include:
- Allele properties
- Mendel's first and second laws
- Exceptions to simple dominance
- The chi-square test
- Phenotypic plasticity and genotype-environment interaction
1. Overview of Genetics
We view manipulation of genes in our crops and livestock as a recent development. Yet, man has been manipulating the genetic makeup of his food for thousands of years through cultivation and breeding. This lesson will begin to help you understand how genetics works.
2. Properties of Alleles
What is a dominant phenotype and how will it affect Adrian's flying hamster research? Tune in as he studies homozygous and heterozygous genotypes and the phenotypes they produce.
3. Mendel's First Law: The Law of Segregation
Breaking up is a hard thing to do, but homologous chromosomes always go their separate way. What effect does chromosome segregation have on genetics? We look once more to Adrian's flying hamsters for answers.
4. Application of Mendel's First Law
Hollywood Squares? No, it's Punnett Squares! Those wacky diagrams are a geneticist's best friend. See how they turn geneticists into soothsayers, predicting the genotypic and phenotypic future.
5. Mendel's Second Law: The Law of Independent Assortment
Understanding how Mendel's law of independent assortment describes inheritance of genes is as easy as flipping a coin. Grab a few coins, queue up the video and see how.
6. Application of Mendel's Second Law
Oh no! Twice the genes and sixteen genotypes - a dihybrid cross seems overwhelming to understand. Never fear though, Punnett squares will save the day!
7. Exceptions to Simple Dominance: Codominance and Incomplete Dominance
Have you ever wondered what it means if someone is a universal donor or acceptor of blood? See how genetic interactions play a key role in this trait.
8. Exceptions to Independent Assortment: Sex Linked and Sex Limited Traits
More men are color blind compared women. But often, not every brother, cousin or uncle in a family tree is color blind. Why not? How can genetics explain this seemingly complex inheritance pattern?
9. Chromosomal Linkage and Crossing Over
During this latest development of his flying hamster experiments, Adrian must learn about linked genes and recombinant chromosomes to unlock the mystery of the fire-breathing hamster. In this lesson, you'll look at another exception to Mendel's law of independent assortment.
10. Complementation Tests: Alleles, Crosses & Loci
Don't judge an organism by its phenotype; sometimes, two organisms will have the same phenotype, but completely different genotypes. In this lesson, we'll learn how a complementation test can identify if mutations occurred within the same gene or different genes.
11. Epistasis: Definition & Examples
Labradors come in three different colors due to two different genes. In this lesson, find out how epistasis works as one phenotype is controlled by the products from two or more genes.
12. Lethal Alleles: Definition & Examples
Some alleles are recessive, some are dominant, and some are just plain bad. In this lesson, we'll learn about how rare lethal alleles can affect the survival of an organism. Specifically, we'll talk about how something like coat color can be lethal in agouti mice.
13. The Chi-Square Test
What if you expect one thing, but get another? The chi-square test is a method of statistical analysis that can help us identify if the results from a genetic cross are simply due to chance, or if something else is happening. Learn about the chi-square test in this lesson.
14. Polygenic Traits: Definition & Examples
If variety is the spice of life, polygenic inheritance is one genetic mechanism giving us a continuous range of possibilities. In this lesson, learn how a polygenic trait, like height, can be controlled by multiple genes.
15. Genotype-Environment Interaction and Phenotypic Plasticity
It's not just what's in your genes. In this lesson, we'll begin to explore how some phenotypes are influenced by the interaction between a genotype and the environment. Further, some organisms rely on phenotypic plasticity to change in response to the environmental changes.
16. The Broad-Sense Heritability Equation
Heritability describes how a phenotype is affected by genetic variation. Who you are is more than just your DNA - it's somewhat influenced by things like what you eat and where you live. In this lesson, find out how geneticists account for variations using the broad-sense heritability equation.
17. Using Twin Studies to Determine Heritability
A twin can be more than a built-in buddy for life. Scientists can use monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs to study the heritability of just about anything, from cancer to behavior.
18. Genomic Imprinting: Definition and Examples
Your parents may have 'imprinted' many things on you, such as how to act at the dinner table and how to spend your money. Your parents also 'imprinted' some of your genes. In this lesson, we'll learn about how genomic imprinting is a form of transcription regulation that is a type of epigenetic inheritance.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 79 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the Intro to Anthropology: Help and Review course
- Introduction to Anthropology: Help and Review
- Anthropology Perspectives: Help and Review
- DNA and Cell Division: Help and Review
- Evolution for Anthropologists: Help and Review
- DNA Mutations: Help and Review
- Physical Anthropology: Help and Review
- Geologic Time and Anthropology: Help and Review
- Anthropology & Ancient History: Help and Review
- Human and Cultural Migrations: Help and Review
- People and the Environment: Help and Review
- Agriculture & Domestication: Help and Review
- Ethnicity and Geography
- Studying Land Resources in Anthropology: Help and Review
- The Nature of Culture: Help and Review
- Art History and Anthropology: Help and Review
- Language and Communication in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Spatial Processes
- Settlement Patterns in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Societies in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Economic Systems in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Family Relationships in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Political Organization in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Studying Religion in Anthropology: Help and Review
- Applications of Anthropology: Help and Review