About This Chapter
Geological Science - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Geological science encompasses all types of interesting elements that make up the Earth. From glaciers to volcanoes, this area of science takes a look at how the Earth formed and the different formations found on the Earth's surface. This chapter will introduce you to topics that will help you to learn more about the Earth. You'll get to take a look beneath the surface at ground water and the evidence supporting continental drift. Some of the other things you will learn include:
- How glaciers form
- How surface water can change a landscape
- About evidence from the Earth's core derived from volcanoes
- The formation of soil
- The effects of mining on the Earth
- About soil erosion
|Ground and Surface Water: Effects on Landscapes||Learn how groundwater and surface water cause changes in landscapes.|
|What Are Glaciers? - Definition, Types & Processes||Study how glaciers are formed, the two types and how they move.|
|How a Landform Diagram Describes the Geological Progression of a Landscape||Analyze a diagram to form a timeline of events that changed a landscape.|
|Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Evidence of Earth's Inner Layers||Examine information gathered from these events to get an idea of Earth's layers.|
|Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic rocks||Identify and trace the cycle that matter can take.|
|Alfred Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift||Look at evidence that led to this theory.|
|Evidence for the Mechanism of Continental Drift||Find out about new evidence supporting the theory.|
|Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface||Explore plate tectonics.|
|Causes of Tectonic Plate Movement||Compare the different theories on plate movement.|
|Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent and Transform Boundaries||Take a look at the different boundaries.|
|Mineral Consumption: How Developed and Developing Nations Consume Minerals Differently||Examine the different usage of minerals between nations.|
|Extraction & Processing of Minerals: Surface Mining, Subsurface Mining & Smelting||Learn to distinguish between types of mining.|
|Mining and Refining: The Environmental Impacts of Mineral Use||Learn about the environmental impacts of acid mine drainage.|
|The Formation and Composition of Soil: Definition and Factors||Define soil and the factors in its formation and composition.|
|Soil Conservation: Fighting Soil Erosion With Sustainable Soil Use||Study the impacts of soil erosion.|
1. Ground and Surface Water: Effects On Landscapes
In this lesson, you will learn how groundwater and surface water form features on Earth and cause changes in landscapes. You will also learn about the different types of features formed by each type of water.
2. What Are Glaciers? - Definition, Types & Processes
Learn about the two major types of glaciers: continental and alpine glaciers. These glaciers shape the landscape around them and affect our everyday lives, even if the nearest glacier is thousands of miles away.
3. How a Landform Diagram Describes the Geological Progression of a Landscape
This lesson describes what a landform diagram is. We'll also discuss some basic laws of geology that can help scientists deduce both the order of events that create a landform and the geologic events that occur after a landform's formation.
4. Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Evidence of Earth's Inner Layers
The interior layers of the earth are not able to be observed directly, so scientists need to rely on other information to learn about it. S waves, P waves, and magma from volcanoes and earthquakes give a glimpse at the layers of the earth by providing data that can be built into a model of the earth.
5. Rock Cycle: Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Rocks
In this lesson, we will discuss the three main types of rocks and how they are formed. The lesson also gives an introduction into how matter locked in rocks can be cycled through the earth.
6. Alfred Wegener's Theory of Continental Drift
People used to think that Earth was static, and that it never changed. Gradually, a body of evidence was gathered that made no sense in this model. Alfred Wegener, Geologic Supersleuth, laid the groundwork for a whole new theory for the large-scale changing nature of the earth.
7. Evidence for the Mechanism of Continental Drift
As scientists began to explore the ocean floor after World War II, they discovered many new clues to help them solve a mystery that had begun decades earlier - how the continents moved about on the surface of the earth.
8. Plate Tectonics: A Unified Theory for Change of the Earth's Surface
After many years of trying to solve the mystery of the moving continents, enough data and evidence was collected to develop a unifying theory of how the surface of the earth changes. It's called plate tectonics.
9. Causes of Tectonic Plate Movement
In this lesson, we explore the causes of plate movement, including thermal convection, ridge push and slab pull. Students will learn how these processes complement each other and form a theory for tectonic plate movement.
10. Plate Boundaries: Convergent, Divergent, and Transform Boundaries
In the theory of plate tectonics, the earth's crust is broken into plates that move around relative to each other. As a result of this movement, three types of plate boundaries are formed: divergent, convergent, and transform boundaries.
11. What Are Minerals? - Types, Properties & Examples
In this lesson, you will learn about minerals and their properties. You will also understand the importance and everyday use of different types of minerals found on Earth.
12. Mineral Consumption: How Developed and Developing Nations Consume Minerals Differently
In this lesson, you will learn about how minerals are used around the world. You will also gain an understanding of where minerals are found on earth and how developed and developing nations consume them differently.
13. Extraction and Processing of Minerals & the Environmental Impacts of Mineral Use
In this lesson, you will learn about the different methods used to extract minerals from the ground and gain an understanding about how different types of mining affect the environment.
14. The Formation and Composition of Soil: Definition and Factors
In this video lesson you will learn how soil is formed and what it is made of. You will also learn about how soil is classified and distributed in layers underground.
15. Soil Conservation: Fighting Soil Erosion With Sustainable Soil Use
In this lesson, you will learn about the causes of soil erosion and the impacts it has on plants and other resources. You will also learn about how erosion is prevented through land use and land monitoring.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the DSST Environmental Science: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Introduction to Environmental Science
- Interaction Among Organisms in the Ecosystem
- Evolving Ecosystems
- Atmospheric Science and the Environment
- Solid and Hazardous Waste
- Biological Science
- Pollution of Freshwater Resources
- Population and the Environment
- Food and Agricultural Resources
- Land Resources
- Human Impact on the Environment
- Renewable Resources
- Nonrenewable Resources
- Environmental Sustainability
- Environmental Risk Analysis
- Ethical and Political Processes of the Environment