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Ch 2: How Scientists Think and Work

About This Chapter

Watch online video lessons to learn about the scientific method, research variables, inductive reasoning, null hypotheses and more. Complete the quizzes that follow each lesson to track your progress.

How Scientists Think and Work - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

Scientists in all fields work to develop an understanding of the natural world through careful observation that takes into account existing scientific laws and theories. Let our instructors show you how with video lessons demonstrating the steps required to develop a hypothesis and design experiments with reproducible, quantifiable results. You can also learn why these processes distinguish science from pseudoscience and find out how professionals in this field review each other's findings with lessons on the following:

  • Steps in formulating a research hypothesis
  • Methods for conducting scientific research
  • Types of experiment variables
  • Differences between inductive and deductive reasoning
  • Importance of peer review in science

Video Objectives
The Nature of Science Learn how to tell the difference between science, pseudoscience and non-science. Describe the relationship between a hypothesis and scientific theory.
Occam's Razor as a Scientific Principle Explain how this 14th century logician's principle is applied in the field of science.
The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples Outline steps in the scientific method. Explore the importance of feedback loops in this process.
What is Scientific Research? Identify the components of scientific research, and discover the roles of subjectivity and objectivity in this process. Scrutinize the methods by which scientists check each other's work.
What Are the Different Kinds of Research Methods? Discover how scientists use observation, experimentation and other research methods.
Formulating the Research Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis Learn how to turn a research question into an educated guess about an experiment's outcomes. Find out how a research hypothesis differs from null and invalid hypotheses.
Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples Examine the role of evidence in deductive and inductive reasoning methodologies.
Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator Investigate the influence of one type of experiment variable on another. Get examples of each.

8 Lessons in Chapter 2: How Scientists Think and Work
The Nature of Science

1. The Nature of Science

This lesson will explore the basic nature of science. It will distinguish science from pseudoscience and hypothesis from theory and natural law; it will give plenty of examples of each.

What is Scientific Research?

2. What is Scientific Research?

This lesson will discuss important components of scientific research, including the scientific method, peer review, statistical significance, and more!

The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples

3. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples

The scientific method is more than just hypotheses and experiments. In this lesson, we'll explore the themes and variations that make up the world of science.

What Are The Different Kinds of Research Methods?

4. What Are The Different Kinds of Research Methods?

This lesson will go over some important research methods, including observation, correlation, and experimentation, as well as examples of each type of methodology.

Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

5. Research Variables: Dependent, Independent, Control, Extraneous & Moderator

This lesson explores the terminology of experimental design. What are variables? How do they influence each other? Is it possible that you are seeing connections that don't actually exist?

Formulating the Research Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis

6. Formulating the Research Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis

After figuring out what you want to study, what is the next step in designing a research experiment? You, the researcher, write a hypothesis and null hypothesis. This lesson explores the process and terminology used in writing a hypothesis and null hypothesis.

Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

7. Inductive vs. Deductive Reasoning: Differences & Examples

This lesson explores the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning in the form of psychological experiments. In addition to defining these terms, the lesson gives examples to explain how this reasoning is applied.

Occam's Razor as a Scientific Principle

8. Occam's Razor as a Scientific Principle

This lesson will explain the principle of Occam's razor, why the word razor is a part of it, and a couple of examples of its application: one from daily life and another one from science.

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