About This Chapter
Immunology and the Body's Defenses Against Pathogens - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
When you get sick, your body begins to react. Your immune system dispatches special fighters that will try to destroy the virus, bacteria or other irritant that has entered your body. In this chapter, you will learn more about your immune system. Lessons will explain how this body system works, why it does what it does and how it can sometimes backfire and cause you more harm than good. Some of the topics covered in the lessons in this chapter include:
- Lymph nodes
- Allergic reactions
|What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens||Examine what immunity is and how the immune system functions.|
|The Innate Immune System: Definition and Components||Take a look at the different defense mechanisms of the body.|
|What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms||Find out about what inflammation is and how it works.|
|Cell Mediated Immunity: How Granulocytes Function||Study the features of cell mediated immunity.|
|Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of Cell Mediated Immunity||Learn about topics that include NK cells, macrophages, phagocytosis, monocyte and dendritic cell.|
|The Complement System: Definition and Activation||Explore topics such as opsonization, chemotaxis, cell lysis, clumping, membrane attack complex, anaphylaxis, edema and apoptosis.|
|What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types||Discover the types of adaptive immunity.|
|The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components||Discuss the structures and functions of the lymphatic system.|
|What Are T Cells? - Creation, Structure & Function||Study the function and structure of T cells.|
|What Are B Cells? - Function and Types||Learn about topics that include B cells, plasma cells, antibody production and memory cells.|
|The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features||Take a look at the characteristics of the humoral immune response.|
|Antibodies: Their Important Structure||Find out about the structure of antibodies.|
|Antibodies Function In the Immune System||Discover the functions of antibodies.|
|The Different Classes of Antibodies||Examine the different classes of antibodies.|
|Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions||Explore the different types of hypersensitivity, specifically learning about allergic reactions.|
|Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity||Learn about the characteristics of cytotoxic hypersensitivity.|
|Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity||Understand the distinguishing features and diseases that occur with this type of hypersensitivity.|
|Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity||Find out more about this type of hypersensitivity.|
|Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity||Study the link between all four types of hypersensitivity and autoimmune issues.|
|Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups||Take a look at the different ways blood types are categorized.|
1. What Is the Immune System? - Our Body's Defense Against Pathogens
In this lesson, you will be introduced to the immune system. You'll learn about the innate and adaptive immune system, Edward Jenner, haptens and immune tolerance.
2. The Anatomical Barriers of the Immune System
This lesson will cover the major anatomical barriers to infection of the innate immune system. We'll explore skin flora, gut flora, gastric acid, lysozymes, and the mucociliary apparatus.
3. What Is Inflammation? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
This lesson will cover the process of inflammation and what your body might do after a bee sting. We'll find out the five cardinal signs of inflammation as well as anaphylactic shock, histamine and cytokines in the process.
4. Granulocytes: Types and Functions
In this lesson, you will learn what a leukocyte, granulocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, and basophil are. You'll also learn about the importance of phagocytosis and chemotaxis.
5. Macrophages, Killer Cells & Other Cells of the Innate Immune System
This lesson will teach you about certain white blood cells of the innate immune system. Namely, we'll learn about phagocytes, monocytes, macrophages, mast cells, and NK cells.
6. The Complement System: Definition and Function
This lesson will cover something known as the complement system. We'll delve into the key functions of this system, including opsonization, chemotaxis, and the formation of membrane attack complexes.
7. What Is Adaptive Immunity? - Definition and Types
This lesson will help you distinguish between several different types of immunity. This includes passive immunity, active immunity, naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity.
8. The Lymphatic System: Definition and Fundamental Components
This lesson will cover something known as the lymphatic system. You'll learn about bone marrow, lymph, the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and much more as we explore this critical component of your immune system.
9. What are T Cells: Creation and Function
This lesson will teach about the birth, maturation, and importance of T cells. You'll learn about T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells, memory T cells, and more!
10. What Are B Cells? - Function and Types
This lesson will focus in on the generalities of B-cells, such as their place of generation, maturation, and training, as well as some specific types of B-cells, such as plasma cells and memory cells.
11. The Humoral Immune Response: Definition and Features
This lesson will describe what humoral immunity is, how it is activated, what is produced, and why. Find out as we explore antigen presenting cells, MHC, T cells, B cells, plasma cells, and antibodies.
12. Antibodies: Their Important Structure
This lesson will cover the basic but important structural components and sites of an antibody as well as their function. This includes heavy chains, light chains, variable domains, constant domains, paratopes, and epitopes.
13. Antibodies: Their Function In the Immune System
This lesson will delve into the three main ways by which antibodies function. We're going to discuss opsonization, agglutination and neutralization. We'll also learn what the Fc region is and why it's important.
14. The Five Classes of Antibodies
This lesson will cover the five different classes, or isotypes, of antibodies. We will cover IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and IgD, as well as their basic structure and function.
15. Type I Hypersensitivity: Allergic Reactions
This lesson delves into something known as type I hypersensitivity reactions. You'll find out how everything from mast cells, basophils, and IgE to histamine, bee stings, and peanut allergies all play a role in this process.
16. Type II Hypersensitivity: Cytotoxic Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss something known as a type II hypersensitivity reaction. We will go over the principal mechanisms by which it occurs as well as the major antibodies involved. In addition, we'll cover autoimmune hemolytic anemia and myasthenia gravis.
17. Type III Hypersensitivity: Immune Complex Hypersensitivity
This lesson will discuss what a type III hypersensitivity reaction causes. It will delve into which antibodies are involved, the creation of immune complexes, the development of arthritis, vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis, and much more.
18. Type IV Hypersensitivity: Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity
This lesson will cover type IV hypersensitivity. We'll discuss the basics of how and why it occurs, the cells involved, and the most common types of diseases and conditions that are associated with this hypersensitivity reaction.
19. Autoimmune Diseases and Hypersensitivity
This lesson will talk about what defines an autoimmune disease, a hypersensitivity reaction, and more. We'll also discuss Graves' disease and myasthenia gravis.
20. Blood Types: ABO System, Red Blood Cell Antigens & Blood Groups
You are either blood type A, B, AB or O. But, did you know that your blood type is determined by microscopic antigens found on your red blood cells? In this lesson, you will learn about the different blood groups and why they do not mix.
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Other chapters within the UExcel Microbiology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Biology Review
- Microbiology Basics
- Bacterial Biology
- Microbiology Laboratory Techniques
- Microorganisms and the Environment
- The Disease Process
- Protozoan Diseases
- Introduction to Viruses
- DNA Viruses
- RNA Viruses
- Fungal Infections
- Foodborne Illnesses and Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases
- Blood-borne Bacterial Diseases
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
- Bacterial Skin and Wound Infections
- Antimicrobial Drugs
- Food and Industrial Microbiology
- Sterilization and Antiseptic Techniques