About This Chapter
Industrialization and Urbanization from 1870-1900 - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Industrialization and urbanization in the late 1800s and leading into the new century helped our country to grow and expand. It led to new innovations, new ways of life and the introduction of social change. The changes helped take our country from a new nation to a thriving country. In this chapter, you will study economic policies, business expansions, labor conditions, politics, cultural changes and immigration during this period. Some of the things you will study include:
- Industrial leaders of the period
- Working conditions during the industrial revolution
- Politics at the local, state and federal levels
- Designations of immigrants during this era
- Urban reform movements
- The rapid growth of cities
|Economic Policy & Industrialization in the U.S. During the Industrial Revolution||Discover the federal economic and monetary policies of this era.|
|Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons||Examine industrial leaders and their business practices.|
|Labor Conditions During the Industrial Revolution in America||Take a look at typical working conditions for common laborers during this period.|
|Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines & Civil Service Reform||Analyze the characteristics of industrial revolution era politics.|
|Labor Unions During the Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management||Explore the development of labor unions and how they interacted with management and law enforcement.|
|The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History & Definitions||See how social and political organizations for farmers developed, along with a look at the platform of the Populist party.|
|Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism||Study where immigrants were coming from at this time and where they were settling.|
|Urbanization During the Industrial Revolution in America: Effects & Problems||Examine the rapid growth of cities as a result of migration, including living conditions and urban planning.|
|The Social Gospel Movement: Definition and Goals of Urban Reform Movements||Explore the goals of urban reform movements looking to solve social problems, such as the Salvation Army and the YMCA.|
|Urban Culture in the Late 1800s: Activities, Literacy Movements & Artistic Movements||Discover what life was like in the cities in the late 19th century, including popular activities, literary and artistic movements.|
1. Economic Policies During the Second Industrial Revolution
With encouragement from the federal government, the Second Industrial Revolution transformed America from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. The mixed effects of these changes on the American people prompted Mark Twain to dub the period the 'Gilded Age.'
2. American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management & New Business Models
American industry was transformed in the Second Industrial Revolution but not just through mechanization. Find out how new methods of management and organization helped the development of big business.
3. Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons
The Second Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth for industrialists like Andrew Carnegie. These corporate leaders were sometimes called Robber Barons for their questionable business practices, but they were also well-known for their philanthropy.
4. Labor Conditions During the Second Industrial Revolution
In the period between the Civil War and World War I, the American economy - supported by industry rather than agriculture - boomed. But, not everything glittered in the Gilded Age. Learn about the difficult, dangerous conditions of work during the Second Industrial Revolution.
5. Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines & Civil Service Reform
Refresh your memory of the 'Forgotten Presidents' of the Gilded Age, and learn how Civil Service Reform might have cleaned up the federal government, but not the cities and states. They were the domain of political machines, like Tammany Hall.
6. Labor Unions During the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management
Before American businesses had to comply with basic labor laws and safety regulations, workers organized to improve their working conditions. Learn about the early labor unions and their violent clashes with management and government.
7. The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History & Definitions
During the Gilded Age of the late 19th century, farm prices fell and the federal government began supporting industry. Farmers first organized the Grange, a social movement that turned political with Farmers' Alliances. The Populist Party emerged to represent agrarian interests at the national level.
8. Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism
Between the Civil War and WWI, America experienced a massive third wave of immigration. Learn about where these immigrants came from, where they went and how 'native' Americans responded to them.
9. Urbanization During the Second Industrial Revolution in America: Effects & Problems
After the Civil War, America transformed from a rural nation to an urban nation. Learn where all those people came from and why. Using New York City as an example, you'll see some of the problems of urbanization and the steps they took to improve it.
10. The Social Gospel Movement: Definition and Goals of Urban Reform Movements
Many Americans were desperately poor around the turn of the 20th century. The Social Gospel movement emerged among Protestant Christians to improve the economic, moral and social conditions of the urban working class.
11. Middle Class Opportunities in American Cities During the Second Industrial Revolution
In the late 1800s, a new middle class emerged in America. In this lesson, learn about new opportunities available to these urbanites, including technology, sports and leisure, education and the arts.
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Other chapters within the History 104: US History II course
- Reconstruction and the Gilded Age (1865-1877)
- The Progressive Era (1900-1917)
- American Imperialism (1890-1919)
- The Roaring 20s (1920-1929)
- The Great Depression (1929-1940)
- The US in World War ll (1941-1945)
- Post-War World (1946-1959)
- The Cold War (1950-1973)
- Protests, Activism and Civil Disobedience (1954-1973)
- The 1970s (1969-1979)
- The Rise of Political Conservatism (1980-1992)
- Contemporary America (1992-2013)
- Studying for History 104