About This Chapter
Industrialization & Urbanization in the United States - Chapter Summary
In this chapter, you'll review the industrialization and urbanization of the United States during the Gilded Age. As you follow along with the chapter's expert history instructors, you'll become more familiar with the developments of the time period, as well as the impact of Andrew Carnegie, Jane Addams, immigration and organized labor. By the end of the chapter, you should be able to:
- Explain the Second Industrial Revolution's economic policies and the Gilded Age's politics
- Understand how American industry developed during the Gilded Age
- Contextualize the historical significance of the robber barons and Andrew Carnegie
- Describe the typical labor conditions of the Second Industrial Revolution
- Distinguish between organized labor and management during the time period
- Assess the impact that Jane Addams had on education
- Trace the rise of nativism and immigration in industrial America
- Recognize opportunities that were available to the middle class in American cities during this time
Following each lesson is a short quiz that's designed to reinforce your understanding of industrialization and urbanization topics. You can submit questions to our instructors if they arise, and the chapter is available to study at any time that's convenient. Printable lesson transcripts are also included to help you study offline.
1. Economic Policies During the Second Industrial Revolution
With encouragement from the federal government, the Second Industrial Revolution transformed America from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. The mixed effects of these changes on the American people prompted Mark Twain to dub the period the 'Gilded Age.'
2. American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management & New Business Models
American industry was transformed in the Second Industrial Revolution but not just through mechanization. Find out how new methods of management and organization helped the development of big business.
3. Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons
The Second Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth for industrialists like Andrew Carnegie. These corporate leaders were sometimes called Robber Barons for their questionable business practices, but they were also well-known for their philanthropy.
4. Labor Conditions During the Second Industrial Revolution
In the period between the Civil War and World War I, the American economy - supported by industry rather than agriculture - boomed. But, not everything glittered in the Gilded Age. Learn about the difficult, dangerous conditions of work during the Second Industrial Revolution.
5. Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines & Civil Service Reform
Refresh your memory of the 'Forgotten Presidents' of the Gilded Age, and learn how Civil Service Reform might have cleaned up the federal government, but not the cities and states. They were the domain of political machines, like Tammany Hall.
6. Labor Unions During the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management
Before American businesses had to comply with basic labor laws and safety regulations, workers organized to improve their working conditions. Learn about the early labor unions and their violent clashes with management and government.
7. Jane Addams' Impact on Education
Jane Addams serves as an outstanding example of how compassion and dedication can be used to support others. In this lesson, we will provide a brief background of her life but more specifically an in-depth look at her impact on education in the U.S.
8. Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism
Between the Civil War and WWI, America experienced a massive third wave of immigration. Learn about where these immigrants came from, where they went and how 'native' Americans responded to them.
9. Middle Class Opportunities in American Cities During the Second Industrial Revolution
In the late 1800s, a new middle class emerged in America. In this lesson, learn about new opportunities available to these urbanites, including technology, sports and leisure, education and the arts.
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