About This Chapter
Introduction to Viruses - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Chances are at some point in your life you have had a virus. Usually a virus is a total pain because antibiotics won't stop them. For example, if you have strep throat, caused by bacteria, you will be given an antibiotic that will clear up your symptoms pretty fast. However, if you get a virus, you will usually just have to suffer until it runs its course. Of course, there are many different viruses. You will learn about some of them in this chapter, like HIV, which can be treated with medications to some extent. Lessons will also cover the basics of viruses, like what they look like, how they duplicate and how they are classified. Some of the other things you will learn about include:
- The discovery of viruses
- Viral shapes
- The viral lifecycle
- Flu Viruses
|What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function||Take a look at how viruses were discovered and the basic components of a virus.|
|Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped||Find out about the different shapes viruses have, which help in their identification.|
|The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate||Study the basics of how viruses live, attack and replicate.|
|Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme||Learn about how viruses are classified.|
|Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles||Examine the cycles of a virus.|
|Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion||Discover more about specific types of viruses and how they affect the human body.|
1. What Are Viruses? - Definition, Structure & Function
In this lesson, you'll learn some historical facts about viruses and the material they are composed of. Find out more as we review the capsid, nucleic acids, the viral envelope, viruses, virions, bacteriophages and virology.
2. Shapes of a Virus: Helical, Icosahedral, Prolate, Complex & Enveloped
Learn about the different shapes viruses can have, such as helical, icosahedral, prolate, complex and enveloped. Find out why one shape is particularly useful from an energetic standpoint.
3. The Life Cycle of a Virus: How Viruses Live, Attack & Replicate
Find out how viruses infect and replicate as we explore the important steps of the virus life cycle, including attachment, uncoating, penetration, replication, and release, as well as the lysogenic and lytic cycles.
4. Classification of Viruses: Viral Genome and Replication Scheme
Find out how viruses are classified based on their being double-stranded, single-stranded, positive-sense, negative-sense, or by having something called reverse transcriptase.
5. Replication of DNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how DNA viruses replicate inside of a host cell. We will cover the entry, integration, replication and release of DNA viruses.
6. Replication of RNA Viruses
This lesson will give you a basic overview of how different types of RNA viruses replicate inside of an animal cell. We will cover the essence of being double-stranded and retroviruses, as well as positive-and negative-sense RNA viruses.
7. How Viruses Mutate: Antigenic Drift and Antigenic Shift
This lesson will discuss the major ways by which viruses, notably the flu virus, mutates. We will talk about recombination, reassortment, antigenic drift, antigenic shift, and more!
8. Viruses: Bacteriophage Lytic and Lysogenic Cycles
Viruses are generally not only our enemy but also the enemy of many other organisms. Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacteria. In this lesson, we'll discuss their basic structure and infection cycle.
9. Flu Viruses, HIV and Immune System Evasion
Why is it that our immune systems can protect us from some viruses but not others? We've eradicated smallpox by using vaccines, so why do influenza and HIV remain such dangerous health risks? In this lesson about viruses, we'll explore these questions and learn how influenza and HIV continue to evade the human immune system.
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Other chapters within the Biology 103: Microbiology course
- Microbiology Basics
- Biology of Bacteria
- The Disease Process
- DNA Viruses
- RNA Viruses
- Diseases Caused By Protozoa
- Fungal Infections
- Foodborne Diseases and Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract
- Sexually Transmitted Bacterial Diseases
- Blood-borne Bacterial Diseases
- Bacterial Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
- Bacterial Wound and Skin Infections
- Principles of Immunology
- Antimicrobial Drugs
- Studying for Biology 103