About This Chapter
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- How do classical and operant conditioning differ?
- What are some of the biological limits on conditioning?
- How do observation and insight factor into the learning process?
- What does scheduling reinforcement mean?
1. Classical Conditioning
Can you be conditioned to associate something new with something else you naturally respond to? In this lesson, we'll take a look at a famous psychological experiment that tested how brains have the ability to automatically react to new stimuli if it's conditioned correctly.
2. Watson and Little Albert
Does classical conditioning work on humans? In this lesson, you'll explore this question as poor Little Albert is taught to fear a rat. You'll also see how classical conditioning can be used in advertising.
3. Operant Conditioning
How do we adapt our behaviors to our advantage? Can we learn from punishment and reward? With operant conditioning, our behaviors are shaped based off the responses we get from them.
How can teachers shape the behavior of their students? In this lesson, you'll not only discover how a pigeon learned how to bowl, but you'll also study the steps required to shape complex acts into continuous behaviors.
5. Scheduling Reinforcement
Have you ever wondered how our behavior is conditioned? How does the timing of rewards affect our behavior and our learning? In this lesson, we'll take a close look at how reinforcement scheduling can influence how fast we learn a behavior and how well the behavior is maintained.
6. Prisoner's Dilemma
Do you make decisions based on your own self- interest? In this lesson, we'll take a look at the famous 'prisoner's dilemma' game to see if individuals, when faced with a competitive or cooperative decision, will choose selfish or selfless outcomes.
7. Observation and Insight
Do you learn through observation or through sudden understanding? In this lesson, we'll take a look at two different methods of learning, which can affect your behavior and problem-solving ability.
8. Biological Limits on Conditioning
How can biological influences affect conditioning? Have you ever had food poisoning? In this lesson, you'll see how natural responses can accelerate or hinder conditioning.
9. Three Stages Of Memory in Psychology: Explanation & Summary
Have you ever given thought to the fact that without memory, you would not know your own name, your address, or where and when you were born? Learn about the complex process of memory and take a short quiz to see how well your memory system works.
10. Robert Sternberg in Psychology: Theory, Creativity & Intelligence
Robert Sternberg is an American psychologist and professor who is best known for his theory on intelligence and creativity. Learn about Sternberg's views on intelligence, information processing, the basic mental processes, and more.
11. Freudian Repression: Definition & Overview
In this lesson you will learn about repression, a psychological defense mechanism proposed by Sigmund Freud. Following this lesson you will have the opportunity to test your knowledge with a short quiz.
12. Negative Punishment: Definition & Examples
Negative punishments work to decrease the likelihood of an undesirable behavior reoccurring by taking something favorable away. Learn more about negative punishments through examples in this lesson, and then test your knowledge with a short quiz.
13. Principle of Conditioning: Definition & Explanation
In this lesson we will learn that the term conditioning is a type of learning by association. Read more about the definition and history of conditioning and test your understanding with a quiz.
14. Punishments in Psychology: Definition & Examples
A punishment is used to reduce an undesired behavior. Learn more about punishment through several examples and test your knowledge with quiz questions.
15. Reinforcement and Punishment: Examples & Overview
The power of reinforcement and punishment to change behavior was discovered by B.F. Skinner. Read on to learn about Skinner's discoveries and how you may experience reinforcement and punishment in your own life.
16. Skinner Box: Experiment & Theory
In this lesson you will learn what a Skinner box is and how it can be used. Following this lesson you will have an opportunity to test your knowledge with a short quiz.
17. Stimulus Generalization: Definition & Explanation
Stimulus generalization is one of the possible outcomes of classical and operant conditioning. In this lesson, you will learn about famous experiments involving stimulus generalization and everyday circumstances in which it occurs.
18. Vicarious Reinforcement: Definition & Explanation
Stickers, praise, and sweet treats - what do they have in common? The fact that they can all be used for vicarious reinforcement! When two people are given the same task, and one is excelling and the other is slacking, one way to push the slacker to do more is to reward the positive behavior of the other person. Learn more in this lesson!
19. Psycholinguistics: Definition & Theory
The study of psycholinguistics examines how we develop, perceive, and produce language. In this lesson, you will discover the field of psycholinguistics and the most popular psycholinguistic theories.
20. The Whole Language Approach to Reading
The whole language approach is a term we hear batted around in the educational field, but does anyone really know what it means? This lesson will define the whole language approach and look at the practice.
21. Elaborative Rehearsal: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, you'll learn the definition of elaborative rehearsal and how it differs from another form of memory rehearsal: maintenance rehearsal. You'll get examples to help you understand this concept and a quiz to test your knowledge at the end.
22. Adult ADHD: Symptoms, Medication & Treatment
Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects roughly 8 million Americans, and yet often goes undiagnosed and untreated. This lesson covers the symptoms of adult ADHD and what medications and treatments are currently available.
23. Abstract Conceptualization: Definition & Examples
Abstract conceptualization is an important part of the experiential learning process and can be a preferred learning style for many people. Through this lesson, you'll learn how to define abstract conceptualization and explore some examples of how it helps us to learn.
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Other chapters within the Intro to Psychology: Help and Review course
- History and Approaches in Psychology: Help and Review
- Biological Bases of Behavior: Help and Review
- Sensation and Perception: Help and Review
- States of Consciousness: Help and Review
- Cognition: Help and Review
- Motivation and Emotion: Help and Review
- Developmental Psychology: Help and Review
- Personality: Help and Review
- Social Psychology Topics: Help and Review
- Psychological Disorders and Health: Help and Review
- Psychological Treatments: Help and Review
- Statistics, Tests and Measurement in Psychology: Help and Review