# Ch 23: Mathematical Methods of Apportionment

Our instructors developed this set of lessons to teach you mathematical methods of apportionment used to determine governmental representation. Included are several study aids to enhance your learning experience.

## Mathematical Methods of Apportionment - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives

Mathematical methods of apportionment are meant to be a fair way to determine how many voting seats each state gets in the House of Representatives. There are multiple ways of doing the math, and the lessons in this chapter teach about the various methods that have been used. Lessons are short videos, with a quiz to be taken at the end of each to check your understanding of the material. We provide a lesson transcript as a study aid, and you can submit a question to the instructor. Upon finishing these lessons, your knowledge will now include:

• Identifying the problem of apportionment in politics
• Understanding Hamilton's and Jefferson's methods of apportionment
• Using the quota rule in apportionment in politics
• Arguing Adams' method of apportionment
• Knowing Webster's method of apportionment that was used for years
• Seeing why Huntington-Hill method of apportionment is currently in use in the House of Representatives

Lesson Objective
The Problem of Apportionment in Politics Identify the problem with trying to give each state its fair portion of representation.
Hamilton's Method of Apportionment in Politics Explore the method Alexander Hamilton used as one of the early methods of assigning the number of House of Representative voting seats.
The Quota Rule in Apportionment in Politics Get familiar with the use of quotas in apportionment.
Jefferson's Method of Apportionment in Politics Review Thomas Jefferson's apportionment method.
Adams' Method of Apportionment in Politics Take a look at John Quincy Adams' argument of apportionment bias.
Webster's Method of Apportionment in Politics Get to know Daniel Webster's method of apportionment that was used for many years by the House of Representatives.
Huntington-Hill Method of Apportionment in Politics Learn the Huntington-Hill method that is currently in use in the House.

Final Exam
Chapter Exam

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