About This Chapter
Nutrient Digestion, Absorption & Transport - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, nutrition instructors will lead you through the absorption and digestion processes that take place in the human body. You'll examine carbohydrate and fiber digestion and look at how proteins and lipids are absorbed. These lessons are designed to teach you about gastrointestinal health and the methods your body uses for transporting nutrients. At the end of this chapter, you'll be familiar with:
- Chemical digestion of carbohydrates
- Protein absorption process
- Process of absorption in the lymphatic system
|Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates: Definition & Process||Describes types of carbohydrates, including disaccharides and monosaccharides. Examines the process of hydrolysis and looks at sugars, cellulose and starch.|
|Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption: Process & End Products||Evaluates the role that enzymes play in the digestion process. Explains how carbohydrates are absorbed into the bloodstream.|
|Protein Digestion and Absorption Process||Provides a detailed look at how protein is digested and provides definitions for key terms such as peptide bonds, amino acids and polypeptides. Discusses the hepatic portal system.|
|Lipids Digestion and Absorption||Defines lipids and details the digestion process. Describes bile salts, pancreatic lipase, endoplasmic reticulum, triglycerides and other key terms associated with lipid absorption and digestion.|
|How Fiber is Digested by the Body||Provides an in-depth look at the process that causes fiber to be digested by the body.|
|Absorption of Micronutrients and Water into the Bloodstream||Details how nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. Discusses glycerol, water-soluble vitamins and minerals.|
|Absorption of Nutrients to the Lymphatic System||Describes this process and looks at monoglycerides, long chain fatty acids and phospholipids. Explains how fat-soluble vitamins and cholesterol play a role in this process.|
|Gastrointestinal Health & Digestive Problems||Assesses the importance of maintaining a healthy GI tract. Identifies common health and digestive issues, such as diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation and gastroesophageal reflex disease.|
|How are Nutrients Transported Around the Body?||Takes a looks at the vascular system and lymphatic system and lipid transport. Examines their role in moving nutrients throughout the body.|
1. Chemical Digestion of Carbohydrates: Definition & Process
Carbohydrates are an important energy source, but must be broken down to be absorbed out of the digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn how disaccharides and polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides through a process called hydrolysis.
2. Carbohydrate Digestion and Absorption: Process & End Products
Carbohydrates that you eat are broken down to monosaccharides by enzymes in your digestive tract. In this lesson, you will learn about these digestive enzymes and how monosaccharides are absorbed out of the digestive tract.
3. Protein Digestion and Absorption Process
Protein is one of the primary nutrients your body uses to build cellular structures. In this lesson, you will learn how protein is broken down into amino acids within your digestive tract and how amino acids are absorbed out of the intestines and into the hepatic portal system.
4. Lipids Digestion and Absorption
Lipids, or fats, are digested and absorbed in the small intestine. In this lesson, you will learn how bile salts emulsify fat so pancreatic lipase can digest it. You will also learn how fats first enter lymphatic capillaries, called lacteals, before entering your blood circulation.
5. How Fiber is Digested by the Body
In this lesson, you will learn how and where fiber is digested in your body. You will also gain a clear understanding of the different types of fiber and their potential health benefits.
6. Absorption of Micronutrients and Water into the Bloodstream
In this lesson, you will gain a deeper understanding of how and where absorption of micronutrients and water take place in your body. You will also learn how and where it enters your bloodstream.
7. Absorption of Nutrients to the Lymphatic System
In the lesson, we will explore the lymphatic system and how it functions. You will learn about the parts of your body that make up your lymphatic system and what nutrients are absorbed there.
8. Gastrointestinal Health & Digestive Problems
In this lesson, you will learn about digestive health, your gastrointestinal tract and what you can do to keep it healthy. You will also learn about symptoms of common digestive problems.
9. How are Nutrients Transported Around the Body?
There are specific steps involved in nutrient transportation to ensure that your body gets what it needs to function properly. This lesson explores how nutrients are transported throughout your body.
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Other chapters within the Nutrition 101: Science of Nutrition course
- Introduction to Nutrition
- Healthy Diet Planning
- Role of Carbohydrates in Nutrition
- Role of Lipids in Nutrition
- Protein's Role in Nutrition
- Role of Water in Nutrition
- Minerals in Nutrition
- Symptoms of Mineral Deficiency & Toxicity
- How Vitamins Support Nutrition
- Anatomy of the Digestive System
- Cell Anatomy & Metabolism
- Weight Management & Energy Needs
- Eating Disorders: Risk to Nutrition
- Physical Activity & Nutrition
- Studying for Nutrition 101